WHY CIVIL RESISTANCE WORKS THE STRATEGIC LOGIC OF NONVIOLENT CONFLICT COLUMBIA STUDIES IN TERRORISM AND IRREGULAR WARFARE

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Why Civil Resistance Works

Author : Erica Chenoweth
ISBN : 9780231156837
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 64.22 MB
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For more than a century, from 1900 to 2006, campaigns of nonviolent resistance were more than twice as effective as their violent counterparts in achieving their stated goals. By attracting impressive support from citizens, whose activism takes the form of protests, boycotts, civil disobedience, and other forms of nonviolent noncooperation, these efforts help separate regimes from their main sources of power and produce remarkable results, even in Iran, Burma, the Philippines, and the Palestinian Territories. Combining statistical analysis with case studies of specific countries and territories, Erica Chenoweth and Maria J. Stephan detail the factors enabling such campaigns to succeed and, sometimes, causing them to fail. They find that nonviolent resistance presents fewer obstacles to moral and physical involvement and commitment, and that higher levels of participation contribute to enhanced resilience, greater opportunities for tactical innovation and civic disruption (and therefore less incentive for a regime to maintain its status quo), and shifts in loyalty among opponents' erstwhile supporters, including members of the military establishment. Chenoweth and Stephan conclude that successful nonviolent resistance ushers in more durable and internally peaceful democracies, which are less likely to regress into civil war. Presenting a rich, evidentiary argument, they originally and systematically compare violent and nonviolent outcomes in different historical periods and geographical contexts, debunking the myth that violence occurs because of structural and environmental factors and that it is necessary to achieve certain political goals. Instead, the authors discover, violent insurgency is rarely justifiable on strategic grounds.
Category: Philosophy

Freedom Without Violence

Author : Dustin Ells Howes
ISBN : 9780199336999
Genre :
File Size : 62.53 MB
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There is a long tradition in Western political thought suggesting that violence is necessary to defend freedom. But nonviolence and civil disobedience have played an equally long and critical role in establishing democratic institutions. Freedom Without Violence explores the long history of political practice and thought that connects freedom to violence in the West, from Athenian democracy and the Roman republic to the Age of Revolutions and the rise of totalitarianism. It is the first comprehensive examination of the idea that violence is necessary to obtain, defend, and exercise freedom. The book also brings to the fore the opposing theme of nonviolent freedom, which can be found both within the Western tradition and among critics of that tradition. Since the plebs first vacated Rome to refuse military service and win concessions from the patricians in 494 B.C., nonviolence and civil disobedience have played a critical role in republics and democracies. Abolitionists, feminists and anti-colonial activists all adopted and innovated the methods of nonviolence. With the advent of the Velvet Revolutions, the end of apartheid in South Africa and, most recently, the Arab Spring, nonviolence has garnered renewed interest in both scholarly publications and the popular imagination. In this book, Dustin Ells Howes traces the intellectual history of freedom as it relates to the concepts and practices of violence and nonviolence. Through a critique and reappraisal of the Western political tradition, Freedom Without Violence constructs a conception of nonviolent freedom. The book argues that cultivating and practicing this brand of freedom is the sine qua non of a vibrant democracy that resists authoritarianism, imperialism and oligarchy.
Category:

Compliant Rebels

Author : Hyeran Jo
ISBN : 9781107110045
Genre : Law
File Size : 25.13 MB
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Analyzes civil wars over the past twenty years and examines what motivates some rebel groups to abide by international law.
Category: Law

Responses To Nonviolent Campaigns

Author : Majken Jul Sørensen
ISBN : 9781326377076
Genre : History
File Size : 61.13 MB
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Nonviolent social movements and campaigns are frequently met with violent repression from their opponents and cheers of encouragement from their supporters. However, it is also common for both authorities and third parties such as foreign governments, international organisations and media to be much more nuanced in their responses. In an attempt to prevent communication between activists, Egyptian authorities closed down the internet and mobile phone networks during the uprising in 2011. In Serbia in the late 1990's, the opposition group Otpor was prevented from registering as a legal organisation and the activists were devalued and framed as drug addicts, terrorists and traitors. In Argentina in the 1970's, many members of the human rights organisation Las Madras de Plaza de Mayo were protected from being disappeared and killed because of the recognition they received from independent international organisations.
Category: History

Rethinking Violence

Author : Erica Chenoweth
ISBN : 9780262014205
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 90.72 MB
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An original argument about the causes and consequences of political violence and the range of strategies employed.
Category: Political Science

Civil Resistance And Power Politics

Author : Sir Adam Roberts
ISBN : 9780191619175
Genre : History
File Size : 31.71 MB
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This widely-praised book identified peaceful struggle as a key phenomenon in international politics a year before the revolutions in Tunisia and Egypt confirmed its central argument. Civil resistance - non-violent action against such challenges as dictatorial rule, racial discrimination and foreign military occupation - is a significant but inadequately understood feature of world politics. Especially through the peaceful revolutions of 1989, and the developments in the Arab world since December 2010, it has helped to shape the world we live in. Civil Resistance and Power Politics covers most of the leading cases, including the actions master-minded by Gandhi, the US civil rights struggle in the 1960s, the Islamic revolution in Iran in 1979, the 'people power' revolt in the Philippines in the 1980s, the campaigns against apartheid in South Africa, the various movements contributing to the collapse of the Soviet Bloc in 1989-91, and, in this century, the 'colour revolutions' in Georgia and Ukraine. The chapters, written by leading experts, are richly descriptive and analytically rigorous. This book addresses the complex interrelationship between civil resistance and other dimensions of power. It explores the question of whether civil resistance should be seen as potentially replacing violence completely, or as a phenomenon that operates in conjunction with, and modification of, power politics. It looks at cases where campaigns were repressed, including China in 1989 and Burma in 2007. It notes that in several instances, including Northern Ireland, Kosovo and, Georgia, civil resistance movements were followed by the outbreak of armed conflict. It also includes a chapter with new material from Russian archives showing how the Soviet leadership responded to civil resistance, and a comprehensive bibliographical essay. Illustrated throughout with a remarkable selection of photographs, this uniquely wide-ranging and path-breaking study is written in an accessible style and is intended for the general reader as well as for students of Modern History, Politics, Sociology, and International Relations.
Category: History

A Theory Of Nonviolent Action

Author : Stellan Vinthagen
ISBN : 9781780320533
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 62.38 MB
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In this ground-breaking and much-needed book, Stellan Vinthagen provides the first major systematic attempt to develop a theory of nonviolent action since Gene Sharp's seminal The Politics of Nonviolent Action in 1973. Employing a rich collection of historical and contemporary social movements from various parts of the world as examples - from the civil rights movement in America to anti-Apartheid protestors in South Africa to Gandhi and his followers in India - and addressing core theoretical issues concerning nonviolent action in an innovative, penetrating way, Vinthagen argues for a repertoire of nonviolence that combines resistance and construction. Contrary to earlier research, this repertoire - consisting of dialogue facilitation, normative regulation, power breaking and utopian enactment - is shown to be both multidimensional and contradictory, creating difficult contradictions within nonviolence, while simultaneously providing its creative and transformative force. An important contribution in the field, A Theory of Nonviolent Action is essential for anyone involved with nonviolent action who wants to think about what they are doing.
Category: Social Science

A Force More Powerful

Author : Peter Ackerman
ISBN : 9781250105202
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 44.84 MB
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This nationally-acclaimed book shows how popular movements used nonviolent action to overthrow dictators, obstruct military invaders and secure human rights in country after country, over the past century. Peter Ackerman and Jack DuVall depict how nonviolent sanctions--such as protests, strikes and boycotts--separate brutal regimes from their means of control. They tell inside stories--how Danes outmaneuvered the Nazis, Solidarity defeated Polish communism, and mass action removed a Chilean dictator--and also how nonviolent power is changing the world today, from Burma to Serbia.
Category: Political Science

Strategic Nonviolent Conflict

Author : Peter Ackerman
ISBN : 0275939162
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 82.10 MB
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Nonviolent action, well planned and implemented, is shown in this lucid, timely, and compelling work to effect dramatic outcomes against opponents utilizing violence. Ackerman and Kruegler recognize that not all nonviolent efforts meet with success and they are careful to stress that a nonviolent approach involves great risks as well as opportunities. It is the effectiveness of the strategies employed which will determine whether those using nonviolent means can prevail against opponents who rely on violence in pursuit of objectives. Twelve principles of strategic nonviolence are established in this book--they serve as a conceptual foundation and enhance the prospects of success in nonviolent campaigns of resistance. The authors also develop six twentieth century examples of nonviolent action from the early Russian Revolution of 1904-1906 through the Solidarity movement in 1980-1981. Each campaign narrative constitutes a fascinating reading experience and illustrates common themes, strategies, and important aspects of behavior on the part of major participants in nonviolent encounters. This is a singularly important book. It offers more than a mere plea for nonviolence. Ackerman and Kruegler provide hard lessons based on important, and often painful, historical efforts: principles to govern the choice and implementation of strategies when nonviolence is the determined response; and insightful analysis to guide assessment and policy. Finally, the authors consider the evolving international situation and relate current themes and policies to the potential inherent in astute and deliberate programs of nonviolence. A work which will focus analysis, impact decision-making, stimulate policy consideration, and invigorate research, this volume will well serve professionals and students in international relations and numerous related fields.
Category: Political Science

German Jihad

Author : Guido W. Steinberg
ISBN : 9780231500531
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 42.32 MB
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Since 2007, the German jihadist scene has become Europe’s most dynamic, characterized by an extreme anti-Americanism, impressive international networks, and spectacular propaganda. German jihadists travel to Turkey, Chechnya, Pakistan, and Afghanistan, trading in jihadist ideologies and allying themselves with virulent organizations. Mapping the complicated interplay between jihadists’ personal motivations and the goals and strategies of the world’s major terrorist groups, Guido Steinberg provides the first analysis of German jihadism, its links to Turkey, and its growing, global operational importance. Steinberg follows the formation of German-born militant networks in German cities and their radicalization and recruitment. He describes how these groups join up with al-Qaeda-affiliated organizations in Afghanistan and Pakistan, such as the Islamic Jihad Union, the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan, and the Taliban, and he plots the path that directly involves them in terrorist activities. Situating these developments within a wider global context, Steinberg interprets the expanding German scene as part of a greater internationalization of jihadist ideology and strategy, swelling the movement’s membership since 9/11. Increasing numbers of Pakistanis, Afghans, Turks, Kurds, and European converts have come to the aid of Arab al-Qaeda, an incremental integration that has worrisome implications for the national security of Germany, the United States, and their allies.
Category: Political Science