TYING THE THREADS OF EURASIA

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Tying The Threads Of Eurasia

Author : Toby C. Wilkinson
ISBN : 9088903875
Genre : History
File Size : 47.56 MB
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The famous 'Silk Roads' have long evoked a romantic picture of travel through colourful civilizations that connected the western and eastern poles of Eurasia, facilitating the exchange of exotic luxury goods, peoples, pathogens and ideas. But how far back can we trace such interaction? Increasing evidence suggests considerable time-depth for Trans-Eurasian exchange, with the expanding urban networks of the Bronze Age at times anticipating later caravan routes. Tying the Threads of Eurasia applies advanced GIS modelling and critical social archaeology to carefully selected material remains from these earlier connections in order to understand and explain macro-scale processes of interaction in the wider ancient Near East between 3000 and 1500BC. Evidence related to precious stone, metal and textile objects found in Transcaucasia, eastern Anatolia and Central Asia are examined critically and spatially to provide new insights into changing socio-economic relations within and beyond these case-study regions. This book will be of interest to archaeologists and historians researching routes of exchange and interaction, macro-scale historical change or GIS approaches to archaeology, and to specialists of the Bronze Age Near East, especially Anatolia, the Caucasus, Central Asia and Iran.
Category: History

Tying The Threads Of Eurasia

Author : Toby Christopher Wilkinson
ISBN : OCLC:862754032
Genre :
File Size : 75.97 MB
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This thesis aims to examine trade and interaction routes and the flow of materials along them across Eurasia during the period c. 3000-1500BC. Two regions 'eastern Anatolia' and 'western Central Asia' form the geographical case studies for this research. Different sources of evidence for interaction, both direct and indirect, are examined. In Chapter 1, the initial frameworks of research, landscape and chronology are introduced, followed by a review of our knowledge on transportation technologies during the 3rd and 2nd millennia BC and a reflection on the kinds of archaeological evidence from which we expect to gather movement and interaction. Chapter 2 critically examines the traditional approach to route reconstruction, based on the principle of 'route inertia', and presents an assembly of data about routes in different historical periods to assess the usefulness of this approach. Chapter 3 builds on this critique of routes to consider how GIS might contribute new ways to visualize routes and interaction. An experimental model of movement based on 'cost-surface analysis' is proposed as an additional tool for the interpretation of distributions in geographical context: these visualizations are termed 'archaeotopograms'. Chapters 4, 5 and 6 form the substantive core of the thesis, synthesizing direct and indirect evidence for the flow of 3 categories of material: stone, metals and textiles respectively. Raw materials, trends in consumption and displaced material aesthetics (e.g. skeuomorphs) are mapped and 'archaeotopograms', based on suitable datasets, are created. Chapter 7 attempts to bring together these diverse data into a chronological narrative and highlight patterns that indicate low-level but important interconnections between our case-study regions and the wider ancient Near East and wider Eurasia. In the concluding chapter 8, the outcomes of the thesis are summarized. Here it is argued that the constant transformation of 'indigenous cultural foci' drove the evolution of routes and development of long-term cultural-economic interaction.
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Dynamics Of Production In The Ancient Near East

Author : Juan Carlos Moreno Garcia
ISBN : 9781785702839
Genre : History
File Size : 54.63 MB
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The transition between the 2nd and the 1st millennium BC was an era of deep economic changes in the ancient Near East. An increasing monetization of transactions, a broader use of silver, the management of the resources of temples through “entrepreneurs”, the development of new trade circuits and an expanding private, small-scale economy, transformed the role previously played by institutions such as temples and royal palaces. The 17 essays collected here analyze the economic transformations which affected the old dominant powers of the Late Bronze Age, their adaptation to a new economic environment, the emergence of new economic actors and the impact of these changes on very different social sectors and geographic areas, from small communities in the oases of the Egyptian Western Desert to densely populated urban areas in Mesopotamia. Egypt was not an exception. Traditionally considered as a conservative and highly hierarchical and bureaucratic society, Egypt shared nevertheless many of these characteristics and tried to adapt its economic organization to the challenges of a new era. In the end, the emergence of imperial super-powers (Assyria, Babylonia, Persia and, to a lesser extent, Kushite and Saite Egypt) can be interpreted as the answer of former palatial organizations to the economic and geopolitical conditions of the early Iron Age. A new order where competition for the control of flows of wealth and of strategic trading areas appears crucial.
Category: History

Revolutionizing A World

Author : Mark Altaweel
ISBN : 9781911576655
Genre : History
File Size : 44.96 MB
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This book investigates the long-term continuity of large-scale states and empires, and its effect on the Near East’s social fabric, including the fundamental changes that occurred to major social institutions. Its geographical coverage spans, from east to west, modern-day Libya and Egypt to Central Asia, and from north to south, Anatolia to southern Arabia, incorporating modern-day Oman and Yemen. Its temporal coverage spans from the late eighth century BCE to the seventh century CE during the rise of Islam and collapse of the Sasanian Empire. The authors argue that the persistence of large states and empires starting in the eighth/seventh centuries BCE, which continued for many centuries, led to new socio-political structures and institutions emerging in the Near East. The primary processes that enabled this emergence were large-scale and long-distance movements, or population migrations. These patterns of social developments are analysed under different aspects: settlement patterns, urban structure, material culture, trade, governance, language spread and religion, all pointing at movement as the main catalyst for social change. This book’s argument is framed within a larger theoretical framework termed as ‘universalism’, a theory that explains many of the social transformations that happened to societies in the Near East, starting from the Neo-Assyrian period and continuing for centuries. Among other influences, the effects of these transformations are today manifested in modern languages, concepts of government, universal religions and monetized and globalized economies.
Category: History

The Elamite World

Author : Javier Álvarez-Mon
ISBN : 9781317329831
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 38.11 MB
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Amongst the civilizations to participate in the dynamic processes of contact and interchange that gave rise to complex societies in the ancient Near East, Elam has remained one of the most obscure, at times languishing in the background of scholarly inquiry. In recent years, however, an increasing body of academic publications have acknowledged its relevance and suggested that its legacy was more considerable and long-lasting than previously estimated. The Elamite World assembles a group of 40 international scholars to contribute their expertise to the production of a solid, lavishly illustrated, English language treatment of Elamite civilization. It covers topics such as its physical setting, historical development, languages and people, material culture, art, science, religion and society, as well as the legacy of Elam in the Persian empire and its presence in the modern world. This comprehensive and ambitious survey seeks for Elam, hardly a household name, a noteworthy place in our shared cultural heritage. It will be both a valuable introductory text for a general audience and a definitive reference source for students and academics.
Category: Social Science

The Years Of Rice And Salt

Author : Kim Stanley Robinson
ISBN : 0553897608
Genre : Fiction
File Size : 89.55 MB
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With the incomparable vision and breathtaking detail that brought his now-classic Mars trilogy to vivid life, bestselling author KIM STANLEY ROBINSON boldly imagines an alternate history of the last seven hundred years. In his grandest work yet, the acclaimed storyteller constructs a world vastly different from the one we know.... The Years of Rice and Salt It is the fourteenth century and one of the most apocalyptic events in human history is set to occur–the coming of the Black Death. History teaches us that a third of Europe’s population was destroyed. But what if? What if the plague killed 99 percent of the population instead? How would the world have changed? This is a look at the history that could have been–a history that stretches across centuries, a history that sees dynasties and nations rise and crumble, a history that spans horrible famine and magnificent innovation. These are the years of rice and salt. This is a universe where the first ship to reach the New World travels across the Pacific Ocean from China and colonization spreads from west to east. This is a universe where the Industrial Revolution is triggered by the world’s greatest scientific minds–in India. This is a universe where Buddhism and Islam are the most influential and practiced religions and Christianity is merely a historical footnote. Through the eyes of soldiers and kings, explorers and philosophers, slaves and scholars, Robinson renders an immensely rich tapestry. Rewriting history and probing the most profound questions as only he can, Robinson shines his extraordinary light on the place of religion, culture, power, and even love on such an Earth. From the steppes of Asia to the shores of the Western Hemisphere, from the age of Akbar to the present and beyond, here is the stunning story of the creation of a new world. From the Hardcover edition.
Category: Fiction

Empires Of Faith

Author : Peter Sarris
ISBN : 9780199261260
Genre : History
File Size : 47.60 MB
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A panoramic account of the history of Europe, the Mediterranean, and the Near East from the fall of Rome to the rise of Islam.
Category: History