Theory And Reality

Author : Peter Godfrey-Smith
ISBN : 0226300617
Genre : Science
File Size : 52.78 MB
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How does science work? Does it tell us what the world is "really" like? What makes it different from other ways of understanding the universe? In Theory and Reality, Peter Godfrey-Smith addresses these questions by taking the reader on a grand tour of one hundred years of debate about science. The result is a completely accessible introduction to the main themes of the philosophy of science. Intended for undergraduates and general readers with no prior background in philosophy, Theory and Reality covers logical positivism; the problems of induction and confirmation; Karl Popper's theory of science; Thomas Kuhn and "scientific revolutions"; the views of Imre Lakatos, Larry Laudan, and Paul Feyerabend; and challenges to the field from sociology of science, feminism, and science studies. The book then looks in more detail at some specific problems and theories, including scientific realism, the theory-ladeness of observation, scientific explanation, and Bayesianism. Finally, Godfrey-Smith defends a form of philosophical naturalism as the best way to solve the main problems in the field. Throughout the text he points out connections between philosophical debates and wider discussions about science in recent decades, such as the infamous "science wars." Examples and asides engage the beginning student; a glossary of terms explains key concepts; and suggestions for further reading are included at the end of each chapter. However, this is a textbook that doesn't feel like a textbook because it captures the historical drama of changes in how science has been conceived over the last one hundred years. Like no other text in this field, Theory and Reality combines a survey of recent history of the philosophy of science with current key debates in language that any beginning scholar or critical reader can follow.
Category: Science

Creating Scientific Controversies

Author : David Harker
ISBN : 9781316409312
Genre : Science
File Size : 83.48 MB
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For decades, cigarette companies helped to promote the impression that there was no scientific consensus concerning the safety of their product. The appearance of controversy, however, was misleading, designed to confuse the public and to protect industry interests. Created scientific controversies emerge when expert communities are in broad agreement but the public perception is one of profound scientific uncertainty and doubt. In the first book-length analysis of the concept of a created scientific controversy, David Harker explores issues including climate change, Creation science, the anti-vaccine movement and genetically modified crops. Drawing on work in cognitive psychology, social epistemology, critical thinking and philosophy of science, he shows readers how to better understand, evaluate, and respond to the appearance of scientific controversy. His book will be a valuable resource for students of philosophy of science, environmental and health sciences, and social and natural sciences.
Category: Science

World Politics At The Edge Of Chaos

Author : Emilian Kavalski
ISBN : 9781438456072
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 29.5 MB
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Comprehensive overview of the inroads made by Complexity Thinking approaches and ideas in the study and practice of world politics. Why are policymakers, scholars, and the general public so surprised when the world turns out to be unpredictable? World Politics at the Edge of Chaos suggests that the study of international politics needs new forms of knowledge to respond to emerging challenges such as the interconnectedness between local and transnational realities; between markets, migration, and social movements; and between pandemics, a looming energy crisis, and climate change. Asserting that Complexity Thinking (CT) provides a much-needed lens for interpreting these challenges, the contributors offer a parallel assessment of the impact of CT to anthropocentric and non-anthropocentric (post-human) International Relations. Using this perspective, the result should be less surprise when confronting the dynamism of a fragile and unpredictable global life.
Category: Political Science

Religion

Author :
ISBN :
Genre :
File Size : 26.7 MB
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Paul Tillichs Theologie Der Kultur

Author : Christian Danz
ISBN : 9783110262377
Genre : Religion
File Size : 27.97 MB
Format : PDF
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This volume examines a comprehensive range of aspects of Paul Tillich's theology of culture from the perspective of the history of his work and its problems. The themes discussed are the development, the context and the individual structural elements, as well as the impetus and further perspectives of Tillich's theology of culture. This volume is the first systematic and comprehensive account of Tillich's theology of culture and its history.
Category: Religion

Sex And Death

Author : Kim Sterelny
ISBN : 0226773043
Genre : Science
File Size : 30.76 MB
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In this introduction to philosophy of biology, Kim Sterelny and Paul E. Griffiths present both the science and the philosophical context necessary for a critical understanding of the debates shaping biology at the end of the 20th century.
Category: Science

Philosophy Of Statistics

Author :
ISBN : 0080930964
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 29.40 MB
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Statisticians and philosophers of science have many common interests but restricted communication with each other. This volume aims to remedy these shortcomings. It provides state-of-the-art research in the area of philosophy of statistics by encouraging numerous experts to communicate with one another without feeling “restricted by their disciplines or thinking “piecemeal in their treatment of issues. A second goal of this book is to present work in the field without bias toward any particular statistical paradigm. Broadly speaking, the essays in this Handbook are concerned with problems of induction, statistics and probability. For centuries, foundational problems like induction have been among philosophers’ favorite topics; recently, however, non-philosophers have increasingly taken a keen interest in these issues. This volume accordingly contains papers by both philosophers and non-philosophers, including scholars from nine academic disciplines. Provides a bridge between philosophy and current scientific findings Covers theory and applications Encourages multi-disciplinary dialogue
Category: Philosophy

The Theory Of Info Statics Conceptual Foundations Of Information And Knowledge

Author : Kofi K. Dompere
ISBN : 9783319616391
Genre : Computers
File Size : 52.34 MB
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This book discusses the development of a theory of info-statics as a sub-theory of the general theory of information. It describes the factors required to establish a definition of the concept of information that fixes the applicable boundaries of the phenomenon of information, its linguistic structure and scientific applications. The book establishes the definitional foundations of information and how the concepts of uncertainty, data, fact, evidence and evidential things are sequential derivatives of information as the primary category, which is a property of matter and energy. The sub-definitions are extended to include the concepts of possibility, probability, expectation, anticipation, surprise, discounting, forecasting, prediction and the nature of past-present-future information structures. It shows that the factors required to define the concept of information are those that allow differences and similarities to be established among universal objects over the ontological and epistemological spaces in terms of varieties and identities. These factors are characteristic and signal dispositions on the basis of which general definitional foundations are developed to construct the general information definition (GID). The book then demonstrates that this definition is applicable to all types of information over the ontological and epistemological spaces. It also defines the concepts of uncertainty, data, fact, evidence and knowledge based on the GID. Lastly, it uses set-theoretic analytics to enhance the definitional foundations, and shows the value of the theory of info-statics to establish varieties and categorial varieties at every point of time and thus initializes the construct of the theory of info-dynamics.
Category: Computers

Wege Der Wissenschaft

Author : A.F. Chalmers
ISBN : 9783662108826
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 32.95 MB
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Dieses Buch stellt in einfacher Sprache und anhand vieler Beispiele die Grundlagen der Wissenschaftstheorie sowie die wichtigsten Richtungen dieses Fachgebietes dar. Es setzt keine Vorkenntnisse voraus. Dem Autor gelingt es, den Leser von den Grundlagen bis zur aktuellen wissenschaftstheoretischen Diskussion heranzuführen. Die Theorien von Karl Popper, Imre Lakatos, Thomas Kuhn und Paul Feyerabend werden einzeln dargestellt und kritisch miteinander verglichen. Die deutsche Ausgabe wurde durch eine aktuelle deutschsprachige Bibliographie, zusammenfassende Fragestellungen am Ende jedes Kapitels sowie durch ein Sachregister ergänzt. Das Buch bietet Studenten und Interessierten aller Fachrichtungen einen Einstieg in die Wissenschaftstheorie, der eine Auseinandersetzung mit den verschiedenen Ansätzen des Gebietes erlaubt. Der Text für die zweite Auflage wurde von den Herausgebern durchgesehen und korrigiert, die deutschsprachige Bibliographie wurde aktualisiert.
Category: Business & Economics