THE TAKING AND DISPLAYING OF HUMAN BODY PARTS AS TROPHIES BY AMERINDIANS INTERDISCIPLINARY CONTRIBUTIONS TO ARCHAEOLOGY

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The Taking And Displaying Of Human Body Parts As Trophies By Amerindians

Author : Richard J. Chacon
ISBN : 9780387483030
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 24.3 MB
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This edited volume mainly focuses on the practice of taking and displaying various body parts as trophies in both North and South America. The editors and contributors (which include Native Peoples from both continents) examine the evidence and causes of Amerindian trophy taking. Additionally, they present objectively and discuss dispassionately the topic of human proclivity toward ritual violence. This book fills the gap in literature on this subject.
Category: Social Science

The Ethics Of Anthropology And Amerindian Research

Author : Richard J. Chacon
ISBN : 9781461410652
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 84.24 MB
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The decision to publish scholarly findings bearing on the question of Amerindian environmental degradation, warfare, and/or violence is one that weighs heavily on anthropologists. This burden stems from the fact that documentation of this may render descendant communities vulnerable to a host of predatory agendas and hostile modern forces. Consequently, some anthropologists and community advocates alike argue that such culturally and socially sensitive, and thereby, politically volatile information regarding Amerindian-induced environmental degradation and warfare should not be reported. This admonition presents a conundrum for anthropologists and other social scientists employed in the academy or who work at the behest of tribal entities. This work documents the various ethical dilemmas that confront anthropologists, and researchers in general, when investigating Amerindian communities. The contributions to this volume explore the ramifications of reporting--and, specifically,--of non-reporting instances of environmental degradation and warfare among Amerindians. Collectively, the contributions in this volume, which extend across the disciplines of archaeology, anthropology, ethnohistory, ethnic studies, philosophy, and medicine, argue that the non-reporting of environmental mismanagement and violence in Amerindian communities generally harms not only the field of anthropology but the Amerindian populations themselves.
Category: Social Science

Mapping The Mississippian Shatter Zone

Author : Robbie Franklyn Ethridge
ISBN : 9780803217591
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 81.4 MB
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During the two centuries following European contact, the world of late prehistoric Mississippian chiefdoms collapsed and Native communities there fragmented, migrated, coalesced, and reorganized into new and often quite different societies. The editors of this volume, Robbie Ethridge and Sheri M. Shuck-Hall, argue that such a period and region of instability and regrouping constituted a ?shatter zone.? ø In this anthology, archaeologists, ethnohistorians, and anthropologists analyze the shatter zone created in the colonial Southøby examining the interactions of American Indians and European colonists. The forces that destabilized the region included especially the frenzied commercial traffic in Indian slaves conducted by both Europeans and Indians, which decimated several southern Native communities; the inherently fluid political and social organization oføprecontact Mississippian chiefdoms; and the widespread epidemics that spread across the South. Using examples from a range of Indian communities?Muskogee, Catawba, Iroquois, Alabama, Coushatta, Shawnee, Choctaw, Westo, and Natchez?the contributors assess the shatter zone region as a whole, and the varied ways in which Native peoples wrestled with an increasingly unstable world and worked to reestablish order.
Category: Social Science

New Perspectives On Human Sacrifice And Ritual Body Treatments In Ancient Maya Society

Author : Vera Tiesler
ISBN : 0387488715
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 53.85 MB
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This book examines Maya sacrifice and related posthumous body manipulation. The editors bring together an international group of contributors from the area studied: archaeologists as well as anthropologists, forensic anthropologists, art historians and bioarchaeologists. This interdisciplinary approach provides a comprehensive perspective on these sites as well as the material culture and biological evidence found there
Category: Social Science

Feast Famine Or Fighting

Author : Richard J. Chacon
ISBN : 9783319484020
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 56.29 MB
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The advent of social complexity has been a longstanding debate among social scientists. Existing theories and approaches involving the origins of social complexity include environmental circumscription, population growth, technology transfers, prestige-based and interpersonal-group competition, organized conflict, perennial wartime leadership, wealth finance, opportunistic leadership, climatological change, transport and trade monopolies, resource circumscription, surplus and redistribution, ideological imperialism, and the consideration of individual agency. However, recent approaches such as the inclusion of bioarchaeological perspectives, prospection methods, systematically-investigated archaeological sites along with emerging technologies are necessarily transforming our understanding of socio-cultural evolutionary processes. In short, many pre-existing ways of explaining the origins and development of social complexity are being reassessed. Ultimately, the contributors to this edited volume challenge the status quo regarding how and why social complexity arose by providing revolutionary new understandings of social inequality and socio-political evolution.
Category: Social Science

Remote Sensing In Archaeology

Author : James R. Wiseman
ISBN : 9780387444536
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 88.81 MB
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Archaeology has been transformed by technology that allows one to ‘see’ below the surface of the earth. This work illustrates the uses of advanced technology in archaeological investigation. It deals with hand-held instruments that probe the subsurface of the earth to unveil layering and associated sites; underwater exploration and photography of submerged sites and artifacts; and the utilization of imaging from aircraft and spacecraft to reveal the regional setting of archaeological sites and to assist in cultural resource management.
Category: Social Science

Case Studies In Environmental Archaeology

Author : Elizabeth Reitz
ISBN : 9780387713021
Genre : History
File Size : 36.33 MB
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This book highlights studies addressing significant anthropological issues in the Americas from the perspective of environmental archaeology. The book uses case studies to resolve questions related to human behavior in the past rather than to demonstrate the application of methods. Each chapter is an original or revised work by an internationally-recognized scientist. This second edition is based on the 1996 book of the same title. The editors have invited back a number of contributors from the first edition to revise and update their chapter. New studies are included in order to cover recent developments in the field or additional pertinent topics.
Category: History

Statistics For Archaeologists

Author : Robert D. Drennan
ISBN : 1441904131
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 36.76 MB
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In the decade since its publication, the first edition of Statistics for Archaeologists has become a staple in the classroom. Taking a jargon-free approach, this teaching tool introduces the basic principles of statistics to archaeologists. The author covers the necessary techniques for analyzing data collected in the field and laboratory as well as for evaluating the significance of the relationships between variables. In addition, chapters discuss the special concerns of working with samples. This well-illustrated guide features several practice problems making it an ideal text for students in archaeology and anthropology. Using feedback from students and teachers who have been using the first edition, as well as another ten years of personal experience with the text, the author has provided an updated and revised second edition with a number of important changes. New topics covered include: -Proportions and Densities -Error Ranges for Medians -Resampling Approaches -Residuals from Regression -Point Sampling -Multivariate Analysis -Similarity Measures -Multidimensional Scaling -Principal Components Analysis -Cluster Analysis Those already familiar with the clear and useful format of Statistics for Archaeologists will find this new edition a welcome update, and the new sections will make this seminal textbook an indispensible resource for a whole new group of students, professors, and practitioners.
Category: Social Science

The Interpretation Of Archaeological Spatial Patterning

Author : Ellen M. Kroll
ISBN : 9781489926029
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 88.52 MB
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Investigations of archaeological intrasite spatial patterns have generally taken one of two directions: studies that introduced and explored methods for the analysis of archaeological spatial patterns or those that described and analyzed the for mation of spatial patterns in actuaiistic-ethnographic, experimental, or natu ral-contexts. The archaeological studies were largely quantitative in nature, concerned with the recognition and definition of patterns; the actualistic efforts were often oriented more toward interpretation, dealing with how patterns formed and what they meant. Our research group on archaeological spatial analysis at the University of Wisconsin-Madison has been working for several years on both quantitative and interpretive problems. Both lines of investigation are closely related and are important complements. In order to demonstrate the convergence of archaeological and actualistic studies for the understanding of intrasite spatial patterns, we organized a sympo sium at the 52nd Annual Meeting of the Society of American Archaeology in Toronto, Canada, in May 1987. The symposium, titled "The Interpretation of Stone Age Archaeological Spatial Patterns," was organized into two sessions. The six papers presented in the morning session, five of which comprise Part I of this volume, focused on ethnoarchaeological and experimental research. Michael Schiffer was the discussant for this half of the symposium. Our intention for the ethnoarchaeological contributions to the symposium and volume was the delin eation of some of the significant accomplishments achieved thus far by actualistic studies regarding the formation of spatial patterns.
Category: Social Science

North American Indigenous Warfare And Ritual Violence

Author : Richard J. Chacon
ISBN : 0816525323
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 86.67 MB
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Despite evidence of warfare and violent conflict in pre-Columbian North America, scholars argue that the scale and scope of Native American violence is exagerated. They contend that scholarly misrepresentation has denigrated indigenous peoples when in fact they lived together in peace and harmony. In rebutting that contention, this groundbreaking book presents clear evidenceÑfrom multiple academic disciplinesÑthat indigenous populations engaged in warfare and ritual violence long before European contact. In ten well-documented and thoroughly researched chapters, fourteen leading scholars dispassionately describe sources and consequences of Amerindian warfare and violence, including ritual violence. Originally presented at an American Anthropological Association symposium, their findings construct a convincing case that bloodshed and killing have been woven into the fabric of indigenous life in North America for many centuries. The editors argue that a failure to acknowledge the roles of warfare and violence in the lives of indigenous North Americans is itself a vestige of colonial repressionÑdepriving native warriors of their history of armed resistance. These essays document specific acts of Native American violence across the North American continent. Including contributions from anthropologists, archaeologists, historians, and ethnographers, they argue not only that violence existed but also that it was an important and frequently celebrated component of Amerindian life. CONTENTS Acknowledgments Introduction Richard J. Chacon and RubŽn G. Mendoza 1.ÊÊTraditional Native Warfare in Western Alaska Ernest S. Burch Jr. 2.ÊÊBarbarism and Ardour of War from the Tenderest YearsÓ: Cree-Inuit Warfare in the Hudson Bay Region Charles A. Bishop and Victor P. Lytwyn 3.ÊÊAboriginal Warfare on the Northwest Coast: Did the Potlatch Replace Warfare? Joan A. Lovisek 4.ÊÊEthnohistoric Descriptions of Chumash Warfare John R. Johnson 5.ÊÊDocumenting Conflict in the Prehistoric Pueblo Southwest Polly Schaafsma 6.ÊÊCahokia and the Evidence for Late Pre-Columbian War in the North American Midcontinent Thomas E. Emerson 7.ÊÊIroquois-Huron Warfare Dean R. Snow 8.ÊÊDesecrating the Sacred Ancestor Temples: Chiefly Conflict and Violence in the American Southeast David H. Dye and Adam King 9.ÊÊWarfare, Population, and Food Production in Prehistoric Eastern North America George R. Milner 10.ÊÊThe Osteological Evidence for Indigenous Warfare in North America Patricia M. Lambert 11.ÊÊEthical Considerations and Conclusions Regarding Indigenous Warfare and Violence in North America Richard J. Chacon and RubŽn G. Mendoza References About the Contributors Index
Category: Social Science