THE EVOLUTION OF HUMAN SOCIETIES FROM FORAGING GROUP TO AGRARIAN STATE SECOND EDITION

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The Evolution Of Human Societies

Author : Allen W. Johnson
ISBN : 0804740321
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 43.91 MB
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Combining original theoretical ideas and interpretation with ethnographic evidence, Johnson and Earle seek to describe and account for the development of complex human societies. A wealth of case studies are referred to throughout and these are used to support arguments for the proposed causes, mechanisms and patterns of change and for the factors involved, such as technological change, population growth, warfare, the exchange of goods. This second edition sees a complete re-writing of the theoretical chapters, taking account of recent research, plus a new chapter on changes since the Industrial Revolution and the globalisation of society.
Category: Social Science

Groups

Author : Kaori Kawai
ISBN : 1920901787
Genre : Science
File Size : 67.11 MB
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Groups: The Evolution of Human Sociality is the product of a collaborative project based at the Research Institute for Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa at the Tokyo University of Foreign Studies. Researchers primarily involved in three fields - primate sociology and ecology, ecological anthropology, and socio-cultural anthropology - came together to discuss the shape and variations of groups as sympatric entities, and the evolutionary historical foundations that have led to the orientation of groups in present-day human society. To that end, the book turns to non-human primates for comparative purposes to consider the nature of the evolutionary historical foundations of sociality. In place of the past objective of "reconstructing" the ecology and society of early humans, the book's contributions instead re-identify the creation and evolution of that which is social and challenge the prevailing theory of groups in socio-cultural anthropology. Specialists on research into human beings and those studying non-human primates develop the debate about groups in the context of their own areas of expertise, at times in ways that extend beyond the boundaries of their fields.
Category: Science

A History Of Communications

Author : Marshall T. Poe
ISBN : 9781139495578
Genre : History
File Size : 49.16 MB
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A History of Communications advances a theory of media that explains the origins and impact of different forms of communication - speech, writing, print, electronic devices and the Internet - on human history in the long term. New media are 'pulled' into widespread use by broad historical trends and these media, once in widespread use, 'push' social institutions and beliefs in predictable directions. This view allows us to see for the first time what is truly new about the Internet, what is not, and where it is taking us.
Category: History

International Institutions In World History

Author : Laust Schouenborg
ISBN : 9781315409887
Genre : LAW
File Size : 49.33 MB
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This book presents a case for a basic reorientation of International Relations away from the state and towards the study of social institutions in the sense of patterned practices, ideas and norms/rules. IR has always suffered from a parochial occupation with the state and the Western system of state. Its main theories revolve around these phenomena, and have resulted in the reification of the state: it has been turned into an essential actor, with certain immutable and fundamental properties that remain constant throughout time. A list of these properties usually includes territorial limits, centralisation, monopolisation of violence and exclusive loyalties. International Institutions in World History shows how the state is an inherently modern phenomenon, a modern social institution, and that foundational concepts in IR should be based on a full appreciation of the wider record of human existence on earth, trans-historically and cross-culturally. Schouenborg argues that these social institutions may be captured via a universal functional typology consisting of four categories: legitimacy and membership; regulating conflicts; trade; and governance. The book will be of interest to scholars and students within IR (particularly IR theory), anthropology, archaeology and sociology, and those interested in general social theory.
Category: LAW

Challenging Climate Change

Author : Arne Wossink
ISBN : 9789088900310
Genre : History
File Size : 43.13 MB
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Throughout history, climate change has been an important driving force behind human behaviour. This archaeological study seeks to understand the complex interrelations between that behaviour and climatic fluctuations, focussing on how climate affected the social relations between neighbouring communities of occasionally differing nature. It is argued that developments in these relations will fall within a continuum between competition on one end and cooperation on the other. The adoption of a particular strategy depends on whether that strategy is advantageous to a community in terms of the maintenance of its well-being when faced with adverse climate change. This model will be applied to northern Mesopotamia between 3000 and 1600 BC. Local palaeoclimate proxy records demonstrate that aridity increased significantly during this period. Within this geographical, chronological, and climatic framework, this study looks at changes in settlement patterns as an indication of competition among sedentary agriculturalist communities, and the development of the Amorite ethnic identity as reflecting cooperation among sedentary and more mobile pastoralist communities.
Category: History

Bioarchaeology Of Climate Change And Violence

Author : Ryan P. Harrod
ISBN : 9781461492399
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 87.25 MB
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The goal of this monograph is to emphasize with empirical data the complexity of the relationship between climate change and violence. Bioarchaeology is the integration of human skeletal remains from ancient societies with the cultural and environmental context. Information on mortality, disease, diet and other factors provide important data to examine long chronologies of human existence, particularly during periods of droughts and life-threatening climate changes. Case studies are used to reconstruct the responses and short and long-term adaptations made by groups before, during and after dramatic changes in weather and climate. Interpersonal and group violence is also analyzed. The authors find that while in some cases there is an increase in trauma and violence, in other cases there is not. Human groups are capable of avoiding violent altercations and increasing broad networks of cooperation that help to mitigate the effects of climate change. A case study from the U.S. Southwest is provided that shows the variable and surprising ways that ancient farmers in the past dealt with long term droughts.
Category: Social Science

The Sage Handbook Of Marketing Theory

Author : Pauline Maclaran
ISBN : 9781847875051
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 39.59 MB
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This exciting new Handbook brings together the latest in debates concerning the development of marketing theory, featuring original contributions from a selection of leading international authors. The collection aims to give greater conceptual cohesion to the field, by drawing together the many disparate perspectives and presenting them in one volume. The contributors are all leading international scholars, chosen to represent the intellectual diversity within marketing theory.
Category: Business & Economics

Handbook Of South American Archaeology

Author : Helaine Silverman
ISBN : 0387749071
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 61.67 MB
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Perhaps the contributions of South American archaeology to the larger field of world archaeology have been inadequately recognized. If so, this is probably because there have been relatively few archaeologists working in South America outside of Peru and recent advances in knowledge in other parts of the continent are only beginning to enter larger archaeological discourse. Many ideas of and about South American archaeology held by scholars from outside the area are going to change irrevocably with the appearance of the present volume. Not only does the Handbook of South American Archaeology (HSAA) provide immense and broad information about ancient South America, the volume also showcases the contributions made by South Americans to social theory. Moreover, one of the merits of this volume is that about half the authors (30) are South Americans, and the bibliographies in their chapters will be especially useful guides to Spanish and Portuguese literature as well as to the latest research. It is inevitable that the HSAA will be compared with the multi-volume Handbook of South American Indians (HSAI), with its detailed descriptions of indigenous peoples of South America, that was organized and edited by Julian Steward. Although there are heroic archaeological essays in the HSAI, by the likes of Junius Bird, Gordon Willey, John Rowe, and John Murra, Steward states frankly in his introduction to Volume Two that “arch- ology is included by way of background” to the ethnographic chapters.
Category: Social Science

A Day In A Working Life 300 Trades And Professions Through History 3 Volumes

Author : Gary Westfahl
ISBN : 9781610694032
Genre : History
File Size : 84.23 MB
Format : PDF
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Ideal for high school and college students studying history through the everyday lives of men and women, this book offers intriguing information about the jobs that people have held, from ancient times to the 21st century. • Provides detailed, interesting essays describing more than 300 professions and occupations across a broad range of eras, including the 21st century, and from around the world, which will give readers a wider understanding of how people have supported themselves throughout time • Supplies historical primary documents that provide personal perspectives on past occupations • Offers fascinating information on how professions began, who did them, and continuity in occupations across time, such as that 18th-century journalists were often imprisoned for displeasing those in authority, and yet 21st-century U.S. journalists may still spend time in jail for refusing to reveal their sources
Category: History

The Origins Of Ancient Vietnam

Author : Assistant Professor of Anthropology Nam C Kim
ISBN : 9780199980888
Genre : Antiquities, Prehistoric
File Size : 52.48 MB
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"Explores the genesis of civilization in the Red River Delta of Vietnam and how it can inform our understanding of ancient societies, generally, and the foundations of Vietnamese culture, specifically"--
Category: Antiquities, Prehistoric