SUMER AND THE SUMERIANS

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Sumer And The Sumerians

Author : Harriet Crawford
ISBN : 0521533384
Genre : History
File Size : 42.64 MB
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This work reviews the social and technological developments in Mesopotamia from 3800 to 2000 BC.
Category: History

The Sumerians

Author : Samuel Noah Kramer
ISBN : 9780226452326
Genre : History
File Size : 81.82 MB
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The Sumerians, the pragmatic and gifted people who preceded the Semites in the land first known as Sumer and later as Babylonia, created what was probably the first high civilization in the history of man, spanning the fifth to the second millenniums B.C. This book is an unparalleled compendium of what is known about them. Professor Kramer communicates his enthusiasm for his subject as he outlines the history of the Sumerian civilization and describes their cities, religion, literature, education, scientific achievements, social structure, and psychology. Finally, he considers the legacy of Sumer to the ancient and modern world. "There are few scholars in the world qualified to write such a book, and certainly Kramer is one of them. . . . One of the most valuable features of this book is the quantity of texts and fragments which are published for the first time in a form available to the general reader. For the layman the book provides a readable and up-to-date introduction to a most fascinating culture. For the specialist it presents a synthesis with which he may not agree but from which he will nonetheless derive stimulation."—American Journal of Archaeology "An uncontested authority on the civilization of Sumer, Professor Kramer writes with grace and urbanity."—Library Journal
Category: History

The Sumerian World

Author : Harriet Crawford
ISBN : 9781136219115
Genre : History
File Size : 85.40 MB
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The Sumerian World explores the archaeology, history and art of southern Mesopotamia and its relationships with its neighbours from c.3,000 - 2,000BC. Including material hitherto unpublished from recent excavations, the articles are organised thematically using evidence from archaeology, texts and the natural sciences. This broad treatment will also make the volume of interest to students looking for comparative data in allied subjects such as ancient literature and early religions. Providing an authoritative, comprehensive and up to date overview of the Sumerian period written by some of the best qualified scholars in the field, The Sumerian World will satisfy students, researchers, academics, and the knowledgeable layperson wishing to understand the world of southern Mesopotamia in the third millennium.
Category: History

The Sumerians

Author : C. Leonard Woolley
ISBN : 0393002926
Genre : History
File Size : 89.18 MB
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Describes the civilization of the Sumerians, who inhabited the land which today is Iraq, in the beginning of the fourth millennium B.C.
Category: History

Sumeria

Author : T. M. Jefferson
ISBN : 1533543992
Genre :
File Size : 41.56 MB
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Sumer was the first ancient urban civilization in the historical region of southern Mesopotamia, modern-day southern Iraq, during the Chalcolithic and Early Bronze ages, and arguably the first civilization in the world. Proto-writing in the region dates back to c. 3500 BC. The earliest texts come from the cities of Uruk and Jemdet Nasr and date back to 3300 BC; early cuneiform writing emerged in 3000 BC. Modern historians have suggested that Sumer was first permanently settled between c. 5500 and 4000 BC by a West Asian people who spoke the Sumerian language (pointing to the names of cities, rivers, basic occupations, etc., as evidence), a language isolate. These conjectured, prehistoric people are now called "proto-Euphrateans" or "Ubaidians", and are theorized to have evolved from the Samarra culture of northern Mesopotamia (Assyria). The Ubaidians (though never mentioned by the Sumerians themselves) are assumed by modern-day scholars to have been the first civilizing force in Sumer, draining the marshes for agriculture, developing trade, and establishing industries, including weaving, leatherwork, metalwork, masonry, and pottery. However, some scholars contest the idea of a Proto-Euphratean language or one substrate language. It has been suggested by them and others, that the Sumerian language was originally that of the hunter and fisher peoples, who lived in the marshland and theEastern Arabia littoral region, and were part of the Arabian bifacial culture. Reliable historical records begin much later; there are none in Sumer of any kind that have been dated before Enmebaragesi (c. 26th century BC). Professor Juris Zarins believes the Sumerians were settled along the coast of Eastern Arabia, today's Persian Gulf region, before it flooded at the end of the Ice Age. Sumerian civilization took form in the Uruk period (4th millennium BC), continuing into the Jemdat Nasr and Early Dynastic periods. During the 3rd millennium BC, a close cultural symbiosis developed between the Sumerians, who spoke a language isolate, andAkkadian-speakers, which included widespread bilingualism. The Sumerian culture seems to have appeared as a fully formed civilization, with no pre-history. This book present a thorough history and background of the Sumerian civilization.
Category:

In The World Of Sumer

Author : Samuel Noah Kramer
ISBN : 0814321216
Genre : History
File Size : 59.73 MB
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Category: History

The Literature Of Ancient Sumer

Author : Jeremy A. Black
ISBN : 0199296332
Genre : Literary Collections
File Size : 52.8 MB
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This anthology of Sumerian literature constitutes the most comprehensive collection ever published, and includes examples of most of the different types of composition written in the language, from narrative myths and lyrical hymns to proverbs and love poetry. The translations have benefited both from the work of many scholars and from our ever-increasing understanding of Sumerian. In addition to reflecting the advances made by modern scholarship, the translations are written in clear, accessible English. An extensive introduction discusses the literary qualities of the works, the people who created and copied them in ancient Iraq, and how the study of Sumerian literature has evolved over the last 150 years.
Category: Literary Collections

Dilmun And Its Gulf Neighbours

Author : Harriet E. W. Crawford
ISBN : 0521586798
Genre : History
File Size : 84.31 MB
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Harriet Crawford presents a scholarly account of the archaeology of the Arabian Gulf from c.4500–1500 BC. It offers an interpretation of the structure of society in the Early Dilmun period (c.2000–1500 BC) using material from the excavated site of Saar on the main Bahrain island. The urban, centralized and probably literate society in Dilmun is contrasted with the contemporary societies in Oman and the Emirates. Here there is evidence from buildings and graves for a loosely knit, apparently tribal society. Both societies were greatly influenced by their participation in the complex trade routes which linked them with ancient Mesopotamia to the north and the Indus Valley to the south east, but developed their own distinctive cultures. The reason for their divergent development seems to relate to the fact that Dilmun was an entrepot, while the Oman peninsula was a source of raw materials.
Category: History

Inanna

Author : Diane Wolkstein
ISBN : 9780060908546
Genre : Religion
File Size : 88.25 MB
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A fresh retelling of the ancient texts about Ishtar, the world's first goddess. Illustrated with visual artifacts of the period. "A great masterpiece of universal literature."--Mircea Eliade
Category: Religion

Sumerian Mythology

Author : Samuel Noah Kramer
ISBN : 0812210476
Genre : History
File Size : 60.70 MB
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An authoritative sketch of the great myths of the Sumerians, their myths of origins, of creation, the nether world, and the deluge.
Category: History