Mexico

Author : Michael D. Coe
ISBN : 0500290768
Genre : History
File Size : 27.57 MB
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"This authoritative volume has been revised throughout and expanded, with new images and accounts of the major discoveries of recent years. Updates begin with the earliest periods: one of the enduring puzzles surrounding Mexican prehistory, the origins of maize farming, has at last been solved. There are insights into the latest finds at the Olmec sites at Chiapas de Corzo and Zazacatla. The classic city of Teotihuacan continues to yield discoveries, changing the way we look at this major site. The Post-Classic Huastec people are covered in greater detail. And the unearthing of burial deposits in the center of the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan has led to a new understanding of the history and symbolism of this hallowed area."--Page 4 of cover.
Category: History

Encyclopedia Of Sacred Places 2nd Edition 2 Volumes

Author : Norbert C. Brockman
ISBN : 9781598846553
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 42.13 MB
Format : PDF
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Now thoroughly revised and updated, this encyclopedia documents the diversity of shrines, temples, holy places, and pilgrimage sites sacred to the world's major religious traditions, and illustrates their elemental place in human culture. • Over 300 A–Z entries covering sites and pilgrimages sacred to the world's major religious traditions • Illustrative photographs and maps • A glossary of relevant terms • Appendices listing sites by country, faith tradition, and placement in the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites
Category: Social Science

Archaeology Of Ancient Mexico And Central America

Author : Susan Toby Evans
ISBN : 9781136801853
Genre : Reference
File Size : 39.36 MB
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This is the first comprehensive, one-volume encyclopedia in English devoted to pre-Columbian archaeology of the Mesoamerican culture area. In more than 500 articles by the major experts in the field, this work brings the most recent scholarship to an examination of regional environments and their cultural evolution. Entries range from the familiar and world-renowned archaeological discoveries of Maya and Aztec sites to more recent excavations such as the Sayil archaeological zone in the Yucatan and Teopantecuanitlan in Guerrero. A rich historical and cultural resource on one of the world's six cradles of civilization, this reference is ideal for students, scholars, and prospective travellers.
Category: Reference

Information Theory And Evolution

Author : John Scales Avery
ISBN : 9789814401258
Genre : Science
File Size : 41.32 MB
Format : PDF, ePub
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Information Theory and Evolution discusses the phenomenon of life, including its origin and evolution (and also human cultural evolution), against the background of thermodynamics, statistical mechanics, and information theory. Among the central themes is the seeming contradiction between the second law of thermodynamics and the high degree of order and complexity produced by living systems. This paradox has its resolution in the information content of the Gibbs free energy that enters the biosphere from outside sources, as the author will show. The role of information in human cultural evolution is another focus of the book. The first edition of Information Theory and Evolution made a strong impact on thought in the field by bringing together results from many disciplines. The new second edition offers updated results based on reports of important new research in several areas, including exciting new studies of the human mitochondrial and Y-chromosomal DNA. Another extensive discussion featured in the second edition is contained in a new appendix devoted to the relationship of entropy and Gibbs free energy to economics. This appendix includes a review of the ideas of Alfred Lotka, Frederick Soddy, Nicholas Georgiescu-Roegen and Herman E. Daly, and discusses the relevance of these ideas to the current economic crisis. The new edition discusses current research on the origin of life, the distinction between thermodynamic information and cybernetic information, new DNA research and human prehistory, developments in current information technology, and the relationship between entropy and economics. Sample Chapter(s) Chapter 1: Pioneers of Evolutionary Thought (242 KB) Contents:Pioneers of Evolutionary ThoughtCharles Darwin's Life and WorkMolecular Biology and EvolutionStatistical Mechanics and InformationInformation Flow in BiologyCultural Evolution and InformationInformation TechnologyBioinformation TechnologyLooking Towards the FutureAppendix A: Entropy and InformationAppendix B: BiosemioticsAppendix C: Entropy and Economics Readership: Students, professionals, and all readers with scientific or engineering training regardless of field. Keywords:Information Theory;Evolution;Origin of Life;Statistical Mechanics;Thermodynamics;Entropy;Gibbs Free Energy;Cultural Evolution;Bio-Information Technology;BiosemioticsKey Features:No other book gives a quantitative derivation of the information content of Gibbs free energyThe book presents a unique discussion of the differences between thermodynamic information and cybernetic (or semiotic) informationThe unique appendix discusses the relationship between entropy, economics and the current economic crisis
Category: Science

The Art Of Mesoamerica

Author : Mary Ellen Miller
ISBN : 0500204144
Genre : Art
File Size : 48.15 MB
Format : PDF, Kindle
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Offers a survey of Mesoamerican art and architecture that includes color reproductions of the antiquities discovered throughout the region and background information about each item.
Category: Art

Lightning Gods And Feathered Serpents

Author : Rex Koontz
ISBN : 9780292779884
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 42.42 MB
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El Tajín, an ancient Mesoamerican capital in Veracruz, Mexico, has long been admired for its stunning pyramids and ballcourts decorated with extensive sculptural programs. Yet the city's singularity as the only center in the region with such a wealth of sculpture and fine architecture has hindered attempts to place it more firmly in the context of Mesoamerican history. In Lightning Gods and Feathered Serpents, Rex Koontz undertakes the first extensive treatment of El Tajín's iconography in over thirty years, allowing us to view its imagery in the broader Mesoamerican context of rising capitals and new elites during a period of fundamental historical transformations. Koontz focuses on three major architectural features—the Pyramid of the Niches/Central Plaza ensemble, the South Ballcourt, and the Mound of the Building Columns complex—and investigates the meanings of their sculpture and how these meanings would have been experienced by specific audiences. Koontz finds that the iconography of El Tajín reveals much about how motifs and elite rites growing out of the Classic period were transmitted to later Mesoamerican peoples as the cultures centered on Teotihuacan and the Maya became the myriad city-states of the Early Postclassic period. By reexamining the iconography of sculptures long in the record, as well as introducing important new monuments and contexts, Lightning Gods and Feathered Serpents clearly demonstrates El Tajín's numerous iconographic connections with other areas of Mesoamerica, while also exploring its roots in an indigenous Gulf lowlands culture whose outlines are only now emerging. At the same time, it begins to uncover a largely ignored regional artistic culture of which Tajín is the crowning achievement.
Category: Social Science

White Roads Of The Yucat N

Author : Justine M. Shaw
ISBN : 0816526788
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 76.54 MB
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Maya sacbeob, or raised Òwhite roads,Ó are often considered a single class of features, with a sole purpose. In this first systematic examination of their functions, meanings, arrangements, and construction styles, Justine Shaw reveals that these causeways served a variety of cultural and natural functions. In White Roads of the Yucat‡n, author Justine Shaw presents original field data collected with the Cochuah Regional Archaeological Survey at two ancient Maya sites, Ichmul and YoÕokop. Both centers chose to invest enormous resources in the construction of monumental roadways during a time of social and political turmoil in the Terminal Classic period. Shaw carefully examines why it was at this pointÑand no otherÑthat the settlements made such a decision. She argues that both settlements used the sacbeob as a method of socially integrating the largest, most diverse and dispersed population in the Cochuah region. She further demonstrates that their use of the sacbeob, in concert with other innovative strategies, allowed Ichmul and YoÕokop to outlast many of the sites that they may have sought to emulate and to flourish during a time of tremendous sociopolitical and economic change. In addition to her detailed discussion of these two sites, Shaw provides an exhaustive review of the literature of Maya sacbeob archaeology, describing various interpretations of construction, features, and variability. This synthetic and interpretive treatment will aid researchers working on a variety of complex civilizations with road systems, as well as those interested in core-periphery relationships, cultural collapse, and social integration.
Category: Social Science

The Ethics Of Anthropology And Amerindian Research

Author : Richard J. Chacon
ISBN : 9781461410652
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 55.24 MB
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The decision to publish scholarly findings bearing on the question of Amerindian environmental degradation, warfare, and/or violence is one that weighs heavily on anthropologists. This burden stems from the fact that documentation of this may render descendant communities vulnerable to a host of predatory agendas and hostile modern forces. Consequently, some anthropologists and community advocates alike argue that such culturally and socially sensitive, and thereby, politically volatile information regarding Amerindian-induced environmental degradation and warfare should not be reported. This admonition presents a conundrum for anthropologists and other social scientists employed in the academy or who work at the behest of tribal entities. This work documents the various ethical dilemmas that confront anthropologists, and researchers in general, when investigating Amerindian communities. The contributions to this volume explore the ramifications of reporting--and, specifically,--of non-reporting instances of environmental degradation and warfare among Amerindians. Collectively, the contributions in this volume, which extend across the disciplines of archaeology, anthropology, ethnohistory, ethnic studies, philosophy, and medicine, argue that the non-reporting of environmental mismanagement and violence in Amerindian communities generally harms not only the field of anthropology but the Amerindian populations themselves.
Category: Social Science

Das Erste Zeitalter

Author : Zecharia Sitchin
ISBN : 3930219638
Genre :
File Size : 51.68 MB
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>Das erste Zeitalter beruht auf der Vorgabe, daß die Mythologie der Aufbewahrungsort antiker Erinnerungen ist, daß die Bibel als ein historisch-wissenschaftliches Dokument wörtlich genommen werden sollte und daß antike Zivilisationen das Produkt eines Wissens waren, das von den Anummaki, jene die vom Himmel auf die Erde kamen
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