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Megalithic Research In The Netherlands 1547 1911

Author : Jan Albert Bakker
ISBN : 9789088900341
Genre : History
File Size : 70.8 MB
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The impressive megalithic tombs in the northeastern Netherlands are called 'hunebedden', meaning 'Giants' graves'. These enigmatic Neolithic structures date to around 3000 BC and were built by the Funnelbeaker, or TRB, people. The current interpretation of these monuments, however, is the result of over 400 years of megalithic research, the history of which is recorded in this book. The medieval idea that only giants could have put the huge boulders of which they were made into position was still defended in 1660. Others did not venture to explain how hunebeds could have been constructed, but ascribed them to the most ancient, normally sized inhabitants. 16th-century writings speculated that Tacitus was referring to hunebeds when he wrote about the 'Pillars of Hercules' in Germania. Titia Brongersma is the first person recorded to do excavations in a hunebed, in 1685. The human bones she excavated were from normally sized men and suggested that such men, not giants, had constructed the hunebeds. Other haphazard diggings followed, but much worse was the invention of stone covered dikes which required large amounts of stone. This launched a widespread collection of erratic boulders, which included the hunebeds. Boundary stones were stole and several hunebeds were seriously damaged or they vanished completely. Such actions were forbidden in 1734, by one of the earliest laws protecting prehistoric monuments in the world. From the mid 18th century onwards a variety of eminent but relatively unknown researchers studied the hunebeds, including Van Lier (1760), Camper and son (1768-1808), Westendorp (1815), Lukis and Dryden (1878) and Pleytet (1877-1902). This intriguing history of ancient hunebed research ends in 1912, when the modern, systematic excavations of complete hunebeds began and continued until 1985. In the Introduction, a brief general review is given of the present knowledge and ideas about the Hunebed Builders, who lived some 5000 years ago during the Stone Age. The book is illustrated with a large number of drawing and prints from the 16th to the 20th century. An extensive summary in German is included. A brief description of all 53 existing hunebeds and 21-24 excavated demolished ones is included in the appendices.
Category: History

The Trb West Group

Author : Jan Albert Bakker
ISBN : 9789088900235
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 70.32 MB
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A classic study of the pottery of the TRB West group, originally published in 1979. Bakker deals with the research history and typochronology of the TRB pottery. Also he gives a detailed account of the other TRB finds such as flint and stone artefacts and of course the most important TRB sites. Over the years this book has become a standard-work for anyone who is interested in hunebeds and their makers. The author has written a new introduction to this reprint in which he describes how the book of 1979 came together and the research that has been carried out since then.
Category: Social Science

The Modern Antiquarian

Author : Julian Cope
ISBN : 0722535996
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 83.87 MB
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Looks at megalithic sites and monuments in Great Britain
Category: Social Science

The Ancient Giants Who Ruled America

Author : Richard J. Dewhurst
ISBN : 9781591437529
Genre : Body, Mind & Spirit
File Size : 84.50 MB
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A study of the substantial evidence for a former race of giants in North America and its 150-year suppression by the Smithsonian Institution • Shows how thousands of giant skeletons have been found, particularly in the Mississippi Valley, as well as the ruins of the giants’ cities • Explores 400 years of giant finds, including newspaper articles, first person accounts, state historical records, and illustrated field reports • Reveals the Stonehenge-era megalithic burial complex on Catalina Island with over 4,000 giant skeletons, including kings more than 9 feet tall • Includes more than 100 rare photographs and illustrations of the lost evidence Drawing on 400 years of newspaper articles and photos, first person accounts, state historical records, and illustrated field reports, Richard J. Dewhurst reveals not only that North America was once ruled by an advanced race of giants but also that the Smithsonian has been actively suppressing the physical evidence for nearly 150 years. He shows how thousands of giant skeletons have been unearthed at Mound Builder sites across the continent, only to disappear from the historical record. He examines other concealed giant discoveries, such as the giant mummies found in Spirit Cave, Nevada, wrapped in fine textiles and dating to 8000 BCE; the hundreds of red-haired bog mummies found at sinkhole “cenotes” on the west coast of Florida and dating to 7500 BCE; and the ruins of the giants’ cities with populations in excess of 100,000 in Arizona, Oklahoma, Alabama, and Louisiana. Dewhurst shows how this suppression began shortly after the Civil War and transformed into an outright cover-up in 1879 when Major John Wesley Powell was appointed Smithsonian director, launching a strict pro-evolution, pro-Manifest Destiny agenda. He also reveals the 1920s’ discovery on Catalina Island of a megalithic burial complex with 6,000 years of continuous burials and over 4,000 skeletons, including a succession of kings and queens, some more than 9 feet tall--the evidence for which is hidden in the restricted-access evidence rooms at the Smithsonian.
Category: Body, Mind & Spirit

Elsevier S Dictionary Of Geography

Author : Vladimir Kotlyakov
ISBN : 0080488781
Genre : Science
File Size : 38.34 MB
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Geography is a system of highly developed sciences about the environment. Geographical science embracing the study of the Earth's physical phenomena, people and their economic activities has always been in need of an extensive terminology. Geographical terms are related to the terms of natural sciences (physics, chemistry, biology, geology, etc.) and humanities (history, economics, sociology, etc.) since geography is based on these fundamental subjects. Geography includes a number of disciplines and subdivisions which appeared along with the development of the science In spite of being very different geographical disciplines have some common tools of investigation which is maps, comparative method of exploration, remote sensing, geoinformation systems. Today very well developed terminologies of all the specialist fields of geography and related subjects exist in the main world languages. However, they are not always well-correlated. Nowadays geographical terminology requires unification and international correlation more than ever before. Hence the idea of compiling a multilingual polydisciplinary dictionary. The Dictionary consists of the basic table of terms arranged according to the order of the English alphabet with each term numbered. Each entry consists of the term in English and its equivalents in Russian, French, German, Spanish. Short definitions of terms are given in English and in Russian. The terms are supplied with the necessary grammar labels, such as gender of nouns, plural number, etc. The Dictionary combines two functions: that of a defining dictionary and that of a bilingual dictionary. These two functions are basically contradictory because usually the defining dictionary is aimed at giving one meaning of the word which is the main and essential one, while the bilingual dictionary tries to give different equivalents of a given word in the other language in order to supply the user with maximum possible translations, differing in the shades of meanings, thus giving him the possibility to choose the appropriate word. But in our Dictionary we intentionally decided to combine the two functions – defining and multilingual, because a short definition of the term and equivalents in other languages help to achieve our main aim which consists in showing the basic geographical terminology and harmonizing it in several languages. Having this into consideration we deliberately mixed two types of dictionaries in one. Organized alphabetically via English Provides short definition of geographical terms in English and Russian Includes multilingual translation of terms from English to Russian, French, German, Spanish
Category: Science

Sacred Places Europe

Author : Brad Olsen
ISBN : 1888729120
Genre : Religion
File Size : 76.46 MB
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Combining current trends, academic theories, and historical insights, this travel guide brings both lesser-known and famous European spiritual locales into perspective by explaining the significance of each sacred site. The cultural relevance, history, and spirituality of each site—including Stonehenge, the Acropolis, Mont Saint Michel, Pompeii, and Saint Peter’s Basilica—are explained, creating a moving and artistic travel experience. Each destination—with selections spanning more than 15 countries throughout Europe—is accompanied by easy-to-follow maps and directions.
Category: Religion

The Hill Of The Graces

Author : Henry Swainson Cowper
ISBN : PSU:000008261748
Genre : Excavations (Archaeology)
File Size : 55.70 MB
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Category: Excavations (Archaeology)


Author : Francis Pryor
ISBN : 9780141971339
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 21.75 MB
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In Home Francis Pryor, author of The Making of the British Landscape, archaeologist and broadcaster, takes us on his lifetime's quest: to discover the origins of family life in prehistoric Britain Francis Pryor's search for the origins of our island story has been the quest of a lifetime. In Home, the Time Team expert explores the first nine thousand years of life in Britain, from the retreat of the glaciers to the Romans' departure. Tracing the settlement of domestic communities, he shows how archaeology enables us to reconstruct the evolution of habits, traditions and customs. But this, too, is Francis Pryor's own story: of his passion for unearthing our past, from Yorkshire to the west country, Lincolnshire to Wales, digging in freezing winters, arid summers, mud and hurricanes, through frustrated journeys and euphoric discoveries. Evocative and intimate, Home shows how, in going about their daily existence, our prehistoric ancestors created the institution that remains at the heart of the way we live now: the family. 'Under his gaze, the land starts to fill with tribes and clans wandering this way and that, leaving traces that can still be seen today . . . Pryor feels the land rather than simply knowing it' - Guardian Former president of the Council for British Archaeology, Dr Francis Pryor has spent over thirty years studying our prehistory. He has excavated sites as diverse as Bronze Age farms, field systems and entire Iron Age villages. He appears frequently on TV's Time Team and is the author of The Making of the British Landscape, Seahenge, as well as Britain BC and Britain AD, both of which he adapted and presented as Channel 4 series.
Category: Social Science

Marble Past Monumental Present

Author : Michael Greenhalgh
ISBN : 9789004170834
Genre : History
File Size : 48.39 MB
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This survey and synthesis of the structural and decorative uses of Roman remains, particularly marble, throughout the mediaeval Mediterranean, deals with the Christian West - but also Byzantium and Islam, each the inheritor of much Roman territory. It includes a 5000-image DVD.
Category: History

The Crest Of The Peacock

Author : George Gheverghese Joseph
ISBN : 0691135266
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 24.94 MB
Format : PDF
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"Enthralling ... After reading it, we cannot see the past in the same comforting haze of age-old stories, faithfully and uncritically retold from teacher to pupil down the years ... Invaluable for mathematics teachers at all levels."--New Scientist.
Category: Mathematics