Megalithic Research In The Netherlands 1547 1911

Author : Jan Albert Bakker
ISBN : 9789088900341
Genre : History
File Size : 38.64 MB
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The impressive megalithic tombs in the northeastern Netherlands are called 'hunebedden', meaning 'Giants' graves'. These enigmatic Neolithic structures date to around 3000 BC and were built by the Funnelbeaker, or TRB, people. The current interpretation of these monuments, however, is the result of over 400 years of megalithic research, the history of which is recorded in this book. The medieval idea that only giants could have put the huge boulders of which they were made into position was still defended in 1660. Others did not venture to explain how hunebeds could have been constructed, but ascribed them to the most ancient, normally sized inhabitants. 16th-century writings speculated that Tacitus was referring to hunebeds when he wrote about the 'Pillars of Hercules' in Germania. Titia Brongersma is the first person recorded to do excavations in a hunebed, in 1685. The human bones she excavated were from normally sized men and suggested that such men, not giants, had constructed the hunebeds. Other haphazard diggings followed, but much worse was the invention of stone covered dikes which required large amounts of stone. This launched a widespread collection of erratic boulders, which included the hunebeds. Boundary stones were stole and several hunebeds were seriously damaged or they vanished completely. Such actions were forbidden in 1734, by one of the earliest laws protecting prehistoric monuments in the world. From the mid 18th century onwards a variety of eminent but relatively unknown researchers studied the hunebeds, including Van Lier (1760), Camper and son (1768-1808), Westendorp (1815), Lukis and Dryden (1878) and Pleytet (1877-1902). This intriguing history of ancient hunebed research ends in 1912, when the modern, systematic excavations of complete hunebeds began and continued until 1985. In the Introduction, a brief general review is given of the present knowledge and ideas about the Hunebed Builders, who lived some 5000 years ago during the Stone Age. The book is illustrated with a large number of drawing and prints from the 16th to the 20th century. An extensive summary in German is included. A brief description of all 53 existing hunebeds and 21-24 excavated demolished ones is included in the appendices.
Category: History

The Trb West Group

Author : Jan Albert Bakker
ISBN : 9789088900235
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 84.74 MB
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A classic study of the pottery of the TRB West group, originally published in 1979. Bakker deals with the research history and typochronology of the TRB pottery. Also he gives a detailed account of the other TRB finds such as flint and stone artefacts and of course the most important TRB sites. Over the years this book has become a standard-work for anyone who is interested in hunebeds and their makers. The author has written a new introduction to this reprint in which he describes how the book of 1979 came together and the research that has been carried out since then.
Category: Social Science

Massendinghaltung In Der Archaologie

Author : Kerstin P. Hofmann
ISBN : 9088903468
Genre : Archaeology
File Size : 61.8 MB
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German text: The primary way of generating knowledge in archaeology is through its collections and archives of objects of past cultures and societies - as was and still is stated quite often. But archaeology has been struggling with the sheer masses of objects since, which steadily grow because of excavations. The following seventeen articles were contributions to a conference in Berlin in 2013, which was organized by the German Association for Theories in Archaeology. This edited volume focuses on two general topics. The essays in the first part of the volume treat the virulent problem of objects stockpiling in collections. The history as well as the psychology of collecting are addressed. There is a focus on the development which began with a passionate, subjective "delight in collecting" but which moved towards a regulated, institutionalized "burden of collecting." However, alternatives which lead to a self-conscious practice of de-collecting, are discussed as well. The contributions in the second part of the volume deal with the established empirical-antiquarian research in the light of the material turn and also show the complexity of the relationship between humans and objects. Last but not least, this volume discusses current attempts at the understanding of objects in other disciplines from an archaeological perspective. Primares Erkenntnismittel der Archaologie sind ihre Sammlungen und Archive an Objekten vergangener Kulturen und Gesellschaften. Diese Aussage war und ist auch heute noch oft zu horen. Doch inzwischen leidet die Archaologie zunehmend unter diesen Objekt-Massen, die sie zudem durch Ausgrabungen standig vermehrt. Die hier vorgelegten siebzehn Beitrage entstanden im Zuge einer von der Arbeitsgemeinschaft Theorien in der Archaologie" organisierten Tagung 2013 in Berlin. Der Sammelband hat zwei Schwerpunkte. Die Texte im ersten Teil des Bandes beschaftigen sich mit dem virulenten Problem der Massendinghaltung in Sammlungen. In den Blick genommen werden gleichermassen Geschichte und Psychologie des Sammelns. Die Entwicklung von einer leidenschaftlichen, subjektiven Sammellust" zu einer geregelten, institutionellen Sammellast" steht dabei im Zentrum des Interesses. Aber auch Alternativen werden diskutiert, die zu einer reflektierten Praxis des Ent-Sammelns fuhren konnen. Die Beitrage im zweiten Teil des Buches diskutieren vor dem Hintergrund des material turn kritisch die etablierte empirisch-antiquarische Forschungspraxis der Archaologie und machen die Komplexitat der Mensch-Ding-Beziehungen sichtbar. Nicht zuletzt setzt sich der Band aus archaologischer Perspektive auch kritisch mit gegenwartigen Versuchen des Dingverstandnisses anderer Disziplinen auseinander."
Category: Archaeology

Um Himmels Willen

Author : Manfred Jakubowski-Tiessen
ISBN : 3525362714
Genre : Natural disasters
File Size : 20.74 MB
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Category: Natural disasters

Uarda

Author : Georg Ebers
ISBN : 9789925000395
Genre : Fiction
File Size : 42.6 MB
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In the winter of 1873 I spent some weeks in one of the tombs of the Necropolis of Thebes in order to study the monuments of that solemn city of the dead; and during my long rides in the silent desert the germ was developed whence this book has since grown. The leisure of mind and body required to write it was given me through a long but not disabling illness. In the first instance I intended to elucidate this story-like my "Egyptian Princess"-with numerous and extensive notes placed at the end; but I was led to give up this plan from finding that it would lead me to the repetition of much that I had written in the notes to that earlier work. The numerous notes to the former novel had a threefold purpose. In the first place they served to explain the text; in the second they were a guarantee of the care with which I had striven to depict the archaeological details in all their individuality from the records of the monuments and of Classic Authors; and thirdly I hoped to supply the reader who desired further knowledge of the period with some guide to his studies.
Category: Fiction

Mystik Und Kunst Alttibets

Author : Blanche Christine Olschak
ISBN : UVA:X002237482
Genre : Art, Tibetan
File Size : 30.99 MB
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Category: Art, Tibetan