MATHEMATICAL MODELS OF SOCIAL EVOLUTION A GUIDE FOR THE PERPLEXED

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Mathematical Models Of Social Evolution

Author : Richard McElreath
ISBN : 9780226558288
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 72.6 MB
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Over the last several decades, mathematical models have become central to the study of social evolution, both in biology and the social sciences. But students in these disciplines often seriously lack the tools to understand them. A primer on behavioral modeling that includes both mathematics and evolutionary theory, Mathematical Models of Social Evolution aims to make the student and professional researcher in biology and the social sciences fully conversant in the language of the field. Teaching biological concepts from which models can be developed, Richard McElreath and Robert Boyd introduce readers to many of the typical mathematical tools that are used to analyze evolutionary models and end each chapter with a set of problems that draw upon these techniques. Mathematical Models of Social Evolution equips behaviorists and evolutionary biologists with the mathematical knowledge to truly understand the models on which their research depends. Ultimately, McElreath and Boyd’s goal is to impart the fundamental concepts that underlie modern biological understandings of the evolution of behavior so that readers will be able to more fully appreciate journal articles and scientific literature, and start building models of their own.
Category: Social Science

Guide For The Perplexed

Author : E. F. Schumacher
ISBN : 9780060906115
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 70.25 MB
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The author of the world wide best-seller, Small Is Beautiful, now tackles the subject of Man, the World, and the Meaning of Living. Schumacher writes about man's relation to the world. man has obligations -- to other men, to the earth, to progress and technology, but most importantly himself. If man can fulfill these obligations, then and only then can he enjoy a real relationship with the world, then and only then can he know the meaning of living. Schumacher says we need maps: a "map of knowledge" and a "map of living." The concern of the mapmaker--in this instance, Schumacher--is to find for everything it's proper place. Things out of place tend to get lost; they become invisible and there proper places end to be filled by other things that ought not be there at all and therefore serve to mislead. A Guide for the Perplexed teaches us to be our own map makers. This constantly surprising, always stimulating book will be welcomed by a large audience, including the many new fans who believe strongly in what Schumacher has to say.
Category: Philosophy

Culture And The Evolutionary Process

Author : Robert Boyd
ISBN : 0226069338
Genre : Science
File Size : 37.78 MB
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How do biological, psychological, sociological, and cultural factors combine to change societies over the long run? Boyd and Richerson explore how genetic and cultural factors interact, under the influence of evolutionary forces, to produce the diversity we see in human cultures. Using methods developed by population biologists, they propose a theory of cultural evolution that is an original and fair-minded alternative to the sociobiology debate.
Category: Science

Evolutionary Dynamics

Author : Martin A. Nowak
ISBN : 9780674417755
Genre : Science
File Size : 44.56 MB
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At a time of unprecedented expansion in the life sciences, evolution is the one theory that transcends all of biology. Any observation of a living system must ultimately be interpreted in the context of its evolution. Evolutionary change is the consequence of mutation and natural selection, which are two concepts that can be described by mathematical equations. Evolutionary Dynamics is concerned with these equations of life. In this book, Martin A. Nowak draws on the languages of biology and mathematics to outline the mathematical principles according to which life evolves. His work introduces readers to the powerful yet simple laws that govern the evolution of living systems, no matter how complicated they might seem. Evolution has become a mathematical theory, Nowak suggests, and any idea of an evolutionary process or mechanism should be studied in the context of the mathematical equations of evolutionary dynamics. His book presents a range of analytical tools that can be used to this end: fitness landscapes, mutation matrices, genomic sequence space, random drift, quasispecies, replicators, the Prisoner’s Dilemma, games in finite and infinite populations, evolutionary graph theory, games on grids, evolutionary kaleidoscopes, fractals, and spatial chaos. Nowak then shows how evolutionary dynamics applies to critical real-world problems, including the progression of viral diseases such as AIDS, the virulence of infectious agents, the unpredictable mutations that lead to cancer, the evolution of altruism, and even the evolution of human language. His book makes a clear and compelling case for understanding every living system—and everything that arises as a consequence of living systems—in terms of evolutionary dynamics.
Category: Science

Principles Of Social Evolution

Author : Andrew F.G. Bourke
ISBN : 0199231168
Genre : Science
File Size : 67.71 MB
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Investigates and sets out the common principles of social evolution operating across all taxa and levels of biological organisation.
Category: Science

Statistical Rethinking

Author : Richard McElreath
ISBN : 9781315362618
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 57.46 MB
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Statistical Rethinking: A Bayesian Course with Examples in R and Stan builds readers’ knowledge of and confidence in statistical modeling. Reflecting the need for even minor programming in today’s model-based statistics, the book pushes readers to perform step-by-step calculations that are usually automated. This unique computational approach ensures that readers understand enough of the details to make reasonable choices and interpretations in their own modeling work. The text presents generalized linear multilevel models from a Bayesian perspective, relying on a simple logical interpretation of Bayesian probability and maximum entropy. It covers from the basics of regression to multilevel models. The author also discusses measurement error, missing data, and Gaussian process models for spatial and network autocorrelation. By using complete R code examples throughout, this book provides a practical foundation for performing statistical inference. Designed for both PhD students and seasoned professionals in the natural and social sciences, it prepares them for more advanced or specialized statistical modeling. Web Resource The book is accompanied by an R package (rethinking) that is available on the author’s website and GitHub. The two core functions (map and map2stan) of this package allow a variety of statistical models to be constructed from standard model formulas.
Category: Mathematics

Cognitive Ecology Ii

Author : Reuven Dukas
ISBN : 9780226169378
Genre : Science
File Size : 71.15 MB
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Merging evolutionary ecology and cognitive science, cognitive ecology investigates how animal interactions with natural habitats shape cognitive systems, and how constraints on nervous systems limit or bias animal behavior. Research in cognitive ecology has expanded rapidly in the past decade, and this second volume builds on the foundations laid out in the first, published in 1998. Cognitive Ecology II integrates numerous scientific disciplines to analyze the ecology and evolution of animal cognition. The contributors cover the mechanisms, ecology, and evolution of learning and memory, including detailed analyses of bee neurobiology, bird song, and spatial learning. They also explore decision making, with mechanistic analyses of reproductive behavior in voles, escape hatching by frog embryos, and predation in the auditory domain of bats and eared insects. Finally, they consider social cognition, focusing on alarm calls and the factors determining social learning strategies of corvids, fish, and mammals. With cognitive ecology ascending to its rightful place in behavioral and evolutionary research, this volume captures the promise that has been realized in the past decade and looks forward to new research prospects.
Category: Science

The Infanticide Controversy

Author : Amanda Rees
ISBN : 9780226707143
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 45.30 MB
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Infanticide in the natural world might be a relatively rare event, but as Amanda Rees shows, it has enormously significant consequences. Identified in the 1960s as a phenomenon worthy of investigation, infanticide had, by the 1970s, become the focus of serious controversy. The suggestion, by Sarah Hrdy, that it might be the outcome of an evolved strategy intended to maximize an individual’s reproductive success sparked furious disputes between scientists, disagreements that have continued down to the present day. Meticulously tracing the history of the infanticide debates, and drawing on extensive interviews with field scientists, Rees investigates key theoretical and methodological themes that have characterized field studies of apes and monkeys in the twentieth century. As a detailed study of the scientific method and its application to field research, The Infanticide Controversy sheds new light on our understanding of scientific practice, focusing in particular on the challenges of working in “natural” environments, the relationship between objectivity and interpretation in an observational science, and the impact of the public profile of primatology on the development of primatological research. Most importantly, it also considers the wider significance that the study of field science has in a period when the ecological results of uncontrolled human interventions in natural systems are becoming ever more evident.
Category: Social Science

Evolutionary Theory

Author : Sean H. Rice
ISBN : 0878937021
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 64.2 MB
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Evolutionary Theory is for graduate students, researchers, and advanced undergraduates who want an understanding of the mathematical and biological reasoning that underlies evolutionary theory. The book covers all of the major theoretical approaches used to study the mechanics of evolution, including classical one- and two-locus models, diffusion theory, coalescent theory, quantitative genetics, and game theory. There are also chapters on theoretical approaches to the evolution of development and on multilevel selection theory. Each subject is illustrated by focusing on those results that have the greatest power to influence the way that we think about how evolution works. These major results are developed in detail, with many accompanying illustrations, showing exactly how they are derived and how the mathematics relates to the biological insights that they yield. In this way, the reader learns something of the actual machinery of different branches of theory while gaining a deeper understanding of the evolutionary process. Roughly half of the book focuses on gene-based models, the other half being concerned with general phenotype-based theory. Throughout, emphasis is placed on the fundamental relationships between the different branches of theory, illustrating how all of these branches are united by a few basic, universal, principles. The only mathematical background assumed is basic calculus. More advanced mathematical methods are explained, with the help of an extensive appendix, when they are needed.
Category: Mathematics

Social Evolution And Inclusive Fitness Theory

Author : James A. R. Marshall
ISBN : 0691161569
Genre : Science
File Size : 69.5 MB
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"Inclusive fitness theory has proved a powerful framework for understanding the evolution of biological systems. Marshall's book provides a comprehensive introduction to a frequently misunderstood and maligned method. This is an important book for anyone that wants to understand evolutionary biology, both theorists and empiricists alike."--Kevin Foster, University of Oxford "Students of social evolution have lacked a book on inclusive fitness theory accessible enough to enlighten the biologists and rigorous enough to satisfy the mathematicians. James Marshall's book succeeds brilliantly at meeting this need. With a firm hand and cool head, Marshall leads the reader expertly through the theory's foundations, complexities, and controversies. Concise yet comprehensive, scholarly yet up to date, his book is an outstanding contribution that will greatly aid the next fifty years of progress in the field."--Andrew Bourke, School of Biological Sciences, University of East Anglia "James Marshall's lucid account of inclusive fitness provides a comprehensive review of the important role it has played in the development of evolutionary explanations of social behavior. It successfully integrates the results of theoretical and empirical research and deserves to be carefully read by anyone seriously interested in the evolution of social relationships and the structure of animal societies."--Tim Clutton-Brock, University of Cambridge "Inclusive fitness is one of the biggest ideas in evolution since Darwin, but it is surprisingly confusing for many. In this exceptionally clearly written book, James Marshall explains the theory, its power, how it can be applied, and how it relates to other approaches like multilevel selection. The book is a must-read for graduate students or anyone curious about altruism or cooperation."--Joan Strassmann, Washington University in St. Louis "The strength of this book lies in its exposition of the central logic of social evolution theory and how it deals with conceptual misunderstandings that have driven recent controversies in this area. All graduate and postgraduate researchers who consider themselves social evolution theorists will want a copy of this book on their shelf."--Andy Gardner, University of St. Andrews "This well-written introduction to inclusive fitness theory will be of interest to a wide range of theoreticians. Marshall provides comprehensive coverage of how to derive Hamilton's rule, what the terms mean, the different variants and complications, and the existing controversies. The applicability of the rule is nicely illustrated with examples taken from studies of taxa ranging from microbes to mammals."--Stuart West, author of "Sex Allocation"
Category: Science