Author : Thomas Hobbes
ISBN : 0872201783
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 86.25 MB
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The renowned work by the English political philosopher examines the structure of society and legitimate government, arguing for a social contract and rule by an absolute sovereign.
Category: Philosophy

The Essential Leviathan

Author : Thomas Hobbes
ISBN : 9781624665226
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 44.54 MB
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This edition of Leviathan is intended to provide the reader with a modestly abridged text that is straightforward and accessible, while preserving Hobbes' main lines of argument and of thought. It is meant for those who wish to focus primarily on the philosophical aspects of the work, apart from its stylish but often daunting early modern prose. The editors have updated language, style, punctuation, and grammar throughout. Very long, complicated sentences have been broken into two or more sentences for enhanced readability. In some instances, terms within a sentence are rearranged for enhanced clarity. Occasionally, an equivalent contemporary word is substituted for an archaic one. Ellipses indicate omissions of more than one sentence. Care has been taken to maintain the strength, nuance, and flavor of the work, especially of Hobbes' most difficult arguments. In addition, the volume offers a general Introduction and concise headnotes to each chapter. Annotation is geared to the student or novice reader. A glossary of key terms is also included, as well as an index.
Category: Philosophy

The Classic Social Contractarians

Author : Janice Richardson
ISBN : 9781317038023
Genre : Law
File Size : 86.38 MB
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How can we live together without subordination and oppression? What does it mean to treat each other as free and equal persons? This book uses contemporary feminist insights to examine aspects of the classic social contractarians' arguments, focusing specifically upon the work of Hobbes, Spinoza, Locke, Rousseau and Kant. Considering the relationship between the 'self' and the law, this volume also looks at the points at issue between feminist political theorists and considers the usefulness of contractarian arguments for feminist politics today, together with an examination of the relationship between their political, legal and moral analyses.
Category: Law

Asking Good Questions

Author : Nancy A. Stanlick
ISBN : 9781585107551
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 74.69 MB
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Asking Good Questions moves beyond a traditional discussion of ethical theory, focusing on how educators can use these important frameworks to facilitate critical thinking about real-life ethical dilemmas. In this way, authors Nancy Stanlick and Michael Strawser offer students a theoretical tool kit for creatively addressing issues that influence their own environments. This text begins with a discussion of key ethical theorists and then guides the reader through a series of original case studies and follow-up activities that facilitate critical thinking, emphasize asking thought provoking questions, and teach the student to address the complexity of ethical dilemmas while incorporating the viewpoints of their peers. Additionally, Stanlick and Strawser include an extensive preface, a mind-mapping technique for analyzing and formulating arguments, and a six step process for approaching complex real-life moral issues. Each chapter incorporates suggested assignments, discussion questions, and references for further reading, and a guide for instructors offering a sample course schedule and suggestions on how to use this book effectively is also available. This text is designed to help educators engage students in a meaningful discussion of how historical theories apply to their own lives, providing rich and unique resources to learn about these critical issues.
Category: Philosophy

On Reason

Author : Emmanuel Chukwudi Eze
ISBN : 0822341956
Genre : History
File Size : 86.63 MB
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A philosophical argument that rationality is based on, or produced from, difference, and is not only worth retaining but necessary in a culturally diverse world.
Category: History

Hobbes S Leviathan

Author : Laurie M. Johnson Bagby
ISBN : 9781441176868
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 39.27 MB
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Reader's Guides are clear, concise and accessible introductions to classic works of philosophy. Each book explores the major themes, historical and philosophical context and key passages of a major philosophical text, guiding the reader toward a thorough understanding of often demanding material. Ideal for undergraduate students, the guides provide an essential resource for anyone who needs to get to grips with a philosophical text. Thomas Hobbes is widely considered to have been ahead of his time and his huge contribution to political philosophy has only recently been fully recognised. His most enduring work, Leviathan, is a key text in the study of political philosophy and a hugely important and exciting, yet challenging, piece of philosophical writing. In Hobbes's 'Leviathan': A Reader's Guide, Laurie M. Johnson Bagby explains the philosophical background against which the book was written and the key themes inherent in the text. The book then guides the reader to a clear understanding of the text as a whole, before exploring the reception and influence of this classic philosophical work. This is the ideal companion to study of this most influential and challenging of texts.
Category: Philosophy

The Americans And Philosophy

Author : Robert Arp
ISBN : 9780812699739
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 51.51 MB
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The Americans, a dark, tense, action thriller with comic touches, has been hailed by many critics as currently the best show on television. The story, created by a former CIA spy, centers on two Soviet agents posing as an ordinary American couple, Philip and Elizabeth Jennings, in 1980s Washington DC. They have two teenage children who know nothing of their clandestine occupation and function as part of their cover story. The Americans and Philosophy brings together diverse philosophers who take a close look at the metaphysical and ethical aspects of the The Americans. The Jenningses believe they are living in a decadent capitalist society and draw emotional uplift from their dedication to a higher ideal. Just one step ahead of the FBI, they practice murder and seduction as instruments to further the goals of Communist subversion. This gives their lives more meaning and more excitement than those of the other people around them, and serious questions arise as to whether their lives can be truly fulfilling and ennobled. Quaint-looking 1980s culture plays a conspicuous role in The Americans, an example being the psychotherapeutic self-awareness cult known as est, which features in the story and also serves as an allegory of espionage, as est (along with ancient philosophy) asks the question, Do our secret, inner lives truly align with how we act? The gadgetry of espionage, including the poorly adapted but actually historically accurate “mail robot” of the 1980s FBI, prompt speculations about the interaction of humans with artificial intelligence. Philip and Elizabeth’s genuine horror when they find that one of their children is praying and attending church brings out the ambiguities in the popular notion of brainwashing and indoctrination. Since the Jenningses’ children enjoy a comfortable life with many opportunities, can it be true that they are immorally exploited? Knowing that all weapons of war are intended to kill and maim, can we uniquely stigmatize some weapons (such as the biological weapon called “Glanders” in Season Four) as unacceptable? All governments practice the duplicity and deception of espionage, but special problems arise when continual lying invades personal relationships. Is it true that in the modern world, devotion to the state has become a “sacred fiction,” like a religion? Lying is everywhere in The Americans, but much of the lying is very similar to everyday deception: parents often withhold from their children facts about the parents’ jobs which might cause needless anxiety, and tell their children apparently harmless fibs like saying that Santa Claus exists. The boundary between criminal lying and everyday lying is a continual irony in the script of The Americans. Can the demands of a lofty cause, even the survival of freedom or justice in the world, justify the deliberate killing of an innocent individual? Such questions continually bombard the show’s protagonists, while existentialist philosophy poses the question: Is Elizabeth truly free to quit being a spy?
Category: Philosophy

A Conversaunt Existence

Author : G. Bradley Nelson
ISBN : 9781490875033
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 40.9 MB
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Discussions about existence have generally come through the subject of philosophy. The thinking and thoughts about God's existence are well documented. Both sides of the standard arguments for God's existence have been presented. Current thinking has turned to evolutionary concepts that deny God exists or claims that God is a mere impersonal force. However, the time has come for a fresh look into how man can know of God's existence.

A Conversaunt Existence is just such a look. Changes have been made to the standard arguments for God's existence. New avenues of thought have been incorporated to corroborate these changes. There are reasons for directing our thoughts toward God's existing: First, it's foolish to let others steer one's thinking into denying God's existence. Ultimately, God wants everyone to respond to His invitation, accept His lifesaving and life-giving message, and participate in writing His story.


A short treatise on existence with an emphasis on the existence of God.

Nelson harkens back to a premodern era by using the archaic word "conversaunt" in place of "conversant" in his title. In doing so, he honors the fact that humankind has always experienced existence as a common form of knowledge. Nelson's work, though deeply philosophical in content, is meant from the beginning to have a personal impact on the reader and not just be merely theoretical in nature. Moreover, his overarching goal is to demonstrate the existence of a personal and involved God. Such authors as C.S. Lewis and Soren Kierkegaard help lead the way. In order to show that the human race is capable of understanding and even connecting with a God figure, Nelson coins a new term intercomplexicate which describes a self-consciousness that is able to make quick evaluations of complex ideas, leading to moral understanding. The author discusses both the strengths and weaknesses of ontological arguments for God's existence and also attempts to disprove popular scientific arguments against the existence of a deity. The idea of contingency (that existence can only occur due to a prior cause) is of great importance in later chapters, as Nelson argues that existence must be contingent on a "necessary being," such as a primary mover or first cause. In closing, the author provides a case not merely for a creator ("watchmaker") God, but for a personal God who continues to be involved with creation. Nelson has a penchant for mixing theoretical and philosophical verbiage with nonstandard language (such as using "by da vey" instead of "by the way" or comparing God with Jean-Luc Picard of Star Trek: The Next Generation). He seems to be seeking a balance between the often opaque material he presents and the personal effect he hopes to have on readers. This balance, unfortunately, is rarely found. Nevertheless, Nelson provides sound arguments worthy of further reflection. Review questions after each chapter are helpful for guiding and focusing the reader.

A thoughtful, refreshing argument for God's existence.

Category: Philosophy

The Handy Philosophy Answer Book

Author : Naomi Zack
ISBN : 9781578592777
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 35.7 MB
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Combining a basic history of philosophical thought with the often quirky personal stories of famous philosophers, this comprehensive introduction to the world of philosophy answers more than 1,000 questions, ranging from What was the Enlightenment? to Why did the Pythagorians avoid fava beans? Analyzing the collective effort of philosophers throughout history in the pursuit of truth and wisdom, the guide explores the tangible significance of philosophical thought to modern society and civilization as a whole. With a wide range of information suitable for various knowledge basesÑfrom junior high to junior collegeÑthis is an ideal resource for anyone looking to get a better grasp of the history of thought.
Category: Philosophy

The Oxford Handbook Of The History Of Political Philosophy

Author : George Klosko
ISBN : 9780199238804
Genre : History
File Size : 34.4 MB
Format : PDF, ePub, Docs
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Fifty distinguished contributors survey the entire history of political philosophy. They consider questions about how the subject should best be studied; they examine historical periods and great theorists in their intellectual contexts; and they discuss aspects of the subject that transcend periods, such as democracy, the state, and imperialism.
Category: History