CRUSADER CASTLES OF THE TEUTONIC KNIGHTS VOL 2 THE STONE CASTLES OF LATVIA AND ESTONIA 1185 1560 FORTRESS 19

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Norman Stone Castles 1

Author : Christopher Gravett
ISBN : 9781782002277
Genre : History
File Size : 67.53 MB
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Descended from the Viking raiders who settled in Northern France under the leadership of Rollo in around 911, the Normans were amongst the most feared warriors of their time. Their territorial ambitions culminated in Duke William 1's conquest of England in 1066, but although victory at Hastings left the English crown in William's hands, Norman sovereignty remained far from established on the island. In order to consolidate his position, the new king built a series of fortifications across the country this book covers all these developments from the early days of William I through to the fortifications of Henry II, Richard I and John.
Category: History

Crusader Castles Of The Teutonic Knights 1

Author : Stephen Turnbull
ISBN : 9781780962177
Genre : History
File Size : 46.61 MB
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ALSO AVAILABLE TO BUY AS AN E-BOOK. Throughout their stormy history the Teutonic Knights of Germany have always been the most controversial brotherhood ever to call themselves 'Knights of Christ'.They were the most warlike of the religious orders, and this is reflected in the architecture they left behind. In contrast to the Templars who are remembered for their churches, the Teutonic memorials are the magnificent brick-built castles they built as a result of their conquest of Prussia between 1230 and 1380. Many of these dramatic fortresses still exist today in what is now Poland and provide a unique example of an architectural style that closely reflects the nature of the Order.
Category: History

Crusader Castles In Cyprus Greece And The Aegean 1191 1571

Author : David Nicolle
ISBN : 9781472803818
Genre : History
File Size : 54.71 MB
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The castles built by the Crusaders, Hospitallers, Venetians and Genoese in Cyprus, Greece, the Aegean, and on the Black Sea served to defend against a complex array of constantly changing threats: Mamluks, Catalan mercenaries, Ottoman Turks, Byzantines, independent Islamic states, Timur-i-Lenk, and widespread piracy, to name but few. The resulting fortifications some inherited from conquered the territories of the former Byzantine empire, some built from scratch were very different to those found in the Middle East. This superbly illustrated book explores their design, development and fate in detail, documenting the rich architectural heritage of this region and its complex history.
Category: History

Saracen Strongholds 1100 1500

Author : David Nicolle
ISBN : 1846033756
Genre : History
File Size : 44.70 MB
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By the time of the Crusades, the Islamic world had developed its own sophisticated styles of fortification. Distinctive and highly effective, the region's unique military architecture continued to evolve in response to the Crusader and Mongol threats, and also drew upon the traditions of their foes and neighbors. The resulting Islamic concepts of military architecture had an influence upon fortifications in Western Europe, including Italy and the Iberian Peninsula. Rather than providing security for feudal aristocracies, however, as was increasingly the case in Europe, Islamic fortifications continued to focus upon the defence of cities and frontiers Covering fortifications as far apart as North Africa, Afghanistan and northern India, this volume focuses on the Islamic side of the conflict, highlighting the fortifications in use when the Crusaders sought to reconquer the Holy Land, as well as the eventual absorption of the territories of Byzantium into the Islamic world.
Category: History

Foreign Legions Of The Third Reich

Author : D. Littlejohn
ISBN : 9780912138220
Genre : History
File Size : 70.78 MB
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Bind 1 (norske, danske og franske frivillige), bind 3 (sydeuropæiske frivillige) og bind 4 (østeuropæiske frivillige) findes under SYSnumrene hhv. 5088, 5099 og 5105.
Category: History

Medieval Scandinavia

Author : Birgit Sawyer
ISBN : 0816617392
Genre : History
File Size : 73.64 MB
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Category: History

Crusader Castles Of The Teutonic Knights 2

Author : Stephen Turnbull
ISBN : 1841767123
Genre : History
File Size : 76.99 MB
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The original forced conversion of pagan Livonia, what is now the Baltic states of Latvia and Estonia, was carried out by a military order known as the Brethren of the Sword. In 1236 this order was incorporated into the Teutonic Knights following a catastrophic military defeat. The knights had always consolidated their conquests through networks of castles and fortified places, and the Livonian Chapter of the Teutonic Order built castles of stone. This title covers the developmental and operational history of these fortresses over the length of the Middle Ages. It details how the Baltic fortifications of the Teutonic Knights evolved to reflect the changing nature of siege warfare and the increasing dominance of gunpowder in warfare.
Category: History

Civilization Past Present

Author : T. Walter Wallbank
ISBN : 0321064194
Genre : History
File Size : 78.87 MB
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The authors of the Eleventh Edition of "Civilization Past and Present" specialists in Islamic, African, Asian, Ancient, Russian, and East European history weave the diverse trends of world history into a clear and accessible analysis for today's students. "Civilization Past and Present," well known in the marketplace as a highly readable survey text, delivers a strong narrative of world history and a level of detail that is manageable for students and solid for instructors. Using images and documents that enhance the text's content, the narrative traces connections across cultures and introduces intriguing avenues of historical interpretation. The text examines all aspects of world history social, political, economic, religious, cultural, and geographic.
Category: History

Encyclopedia Of Literature

Author : Joseph T. Shipley
ISBN : 9781406701357
Genre : Literary Criticism
File Size : 44.24 MB
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PREFACE. THE Author of this very practical treatise on Scotch Loch - Fishing desires clearly that it may be of use to all who had it. He does not pretend to have written anything new, but to have attempted to put what he has to say in as readable a form as possible. Everything in the way of the history and habits of fish has been studiously avoided, and technicalities have been used as sparingly as possible. The writing of this book has afforded him pleasure in his leisure moments, and that pleasure would be much increased if he knew that the perusal of it would create any bond of sympathy between himself and the angling community in general. This section is interleaved with blank shects for the readers notes. The Author need hardly say that any suggestions addressed to the case of the publishers, will meet with consideration in a future edition. We do not pretend to write or enlarge upon a new subject. Much has been said and written-and well said and written too on the art of fishing but loch-fishing has been rather looked upon as a second-rate performance, and to dispel this idea is one of the objects for which this present treatise has been written. Far be it from us to say anything against fishing, lawfully practised in any form but many pent up in our large towns will bear us out when me say that, on the whole, a days loch-fishing is the most convenient. One great matter is, that the loch-fisher is depend- ent on nothing but enough wind to curl the water, -and on a large loch it is very seldom that a dead calm prevails all day, -and can make his arrangements for a day, weeks beforehand whereas the stream- fisher is dependent for a good take on the state of the water and however pleasant and easy it may be for one living near the banks of a good trout stream or river, it is quite another matter to arrange for a days river-fishing, if one is looking forward to a holiday at a date some weeks ahead. Providence may favour the expectant angler with a good day, and the water in order but experience has taught most of us that the good days are in the minority, and that, as is the case with our rapid running streams, -such as many of our northern streams are, -the water is either too large or too small, unless, as previously remarked, you live near at hand, and can catch it at its best. A common belief in regard to loch-fishing is, that the tyro and the experienced angler have nearly the same chance in fishing, -the one from the stern and the other from the bow of the same boat. Of all the absurd beliefs as to loch-fishing, this is one of the most absurd. Try it. Give the tyro either end of the boat he likes give him a cast of ally flies he may fancy, or even a cast similar to those which a crack may be using and if he catches one for every three the other has, he may consider himself very lucky. Of course there are lochs where the fish are not abundant, and a beginner may come across as many as an older fisher but we speak of lochs where there are fish to be caught, and where each has a fair chance. Again, it is said that the boatman has as much to do with catching trout in a loch as the angler. Well, we dont deny that. In an untried loch it is necessary to have the guidance of a good boatman but the same argument holds good as to stream-fishing...
Category: Literary Criticism