Cannibalism In The Linear Pottery Culture

Author : Bruno Boulestin
ISBN : 1784912131
Genre :
File Size : 20.10 MB
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The Herxheim enclosure, located in the German region of Palatinate, is one of the major discoveries of the last two decades regarding the Linear Pottery Culture, and probably one of the most significant in advancing understanding of how this culture ended. The spectacular deposits, mostly composed of human remains, recovered on the occasion of the two excavation campaigns carried out on the site, grabbed people's attention and at the same time raised several questions regarding their interpretation, which had so far mostly hesitated between peculiar funerary practices, war and cannibalism. The authors provide here the first extensive study of the human remains found at Herxheim, focusing mainly on those recovered during the 2005-2010 excavation campaign. They first examine the field data in order to reconstruct at best the modalities of deposition of these remains. Next, from the quantitative analyses and those of the bone modifications, they describe the treatments of the dead, showing that they actually were the victims of cannibalistic practices. The nature of this cannibalism is then discussed on the basis of biological, palaeodemographic and isotopic studies, and concludes that an exocannibalism existed linked to armed violence. Finally, the human remains are placed in both their local and chronocultural contexts, and a general interpretation is proposed of the events that unfolded in Herxheim and of the reasons for the social crisis at the end of the Linear Pottery culture in which they took place.
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The Routledge Handbook Of The Bioarchaeology Of Human Conflict

Author : Christopher Knüsel
ISBN : 9781134678044
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 28.81 MB
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If human burials were our only window onto the past, what story would they tell? Skeletal injuries constitute the most direct and unambiguous evidence for violence in the past. Whereas weapons or defenses may simply be statements of prestige or status and written sources are characteristically biased and incomplete, human remains offer clear and unequivocal evidence of physical aggression reaching as far back as we have burials to examine. Warfare is often described as ‘senseless’ and as having no place in society. Consequently, its place in social relations and societal change remains obscure. The studies in The Routledge Handbook of the Bioarchaeology of Human Conflict present an overview of the nature and development of human conflict from prehistory to recent times as evidenced by the remains of past people themselves in order to explore the social contexts in which such injuries were inflicted. A broadly chronological approach is taken from prehistory through to recent conflicts, however this book is not simply a catalogue of injuries illustrating weapon development or a narrative detailing ‘progress’ in warfare but rather provides a framework in which to explore both continuity and change based on a range of important themes which hold continuing relevance throughout human development.
Category: Social Science

Pr Historische Anthropologie

Author : Gisela Grupe
ISBN : 9783642552755
Genre : Science
File Size : 37.68 MB
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Dieses Buch bietet ein modernes methodisches Kompendium, mit dessen Hilfe eine umfassende Bearbeitung von historischen menschlichen Skelettresten möglich ist. Dargestellt ist das gesamte gängige methodische Repertoire von der Ausgrabung bis zur vergleichenden Auswertung der Daten. Ein Schwergewicht liegt auf moderner Laboranalytik (u.a. Isotopen- und DNA-Analyse). Auf ungewöhnliche Überlieferungsformen menschlicher Überreste (Leichenbrände, Mumien, Moorleichen) wird ebenfalls ausführlich eingegangen. Berücksichtigt werden die Entwicklungen der letzen Jahre, v.a. auch auf dem juristischem und dem ethischem Sektor.
Category: Science

The Oxford Handbook Of Neolithic Europe

Author : Chris Fowler
ISBN : 9780191666889
Genre : History
File Size : 60.85 MB
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The Neolithic - a period in which the first sedentary agrarian communities were established across much of Europe - has been a key topic of archaeological research for over a century. However, the variety of evidence across Europe and the way research traditions in different countries (and languages) have developed makes it very difficult for both students and specialists to gain an overview of continent-wide trends. The Oxford Handbook of Neolithic Europe provides the first comprehensive, geographically extensive, thematic overview of the European Neolithic - from Iberia to Russia and from Norway to Malta - offering both a general introduction and a clear exploration of key issues and current debates surrounding evidence and interpretation. Chapters written by leading experts in the field examine topics such as the movement of plants, animals, ideas, and people (including recent trends in the application of genetics and isotope analyses); cultural change (from the first farming to the first metal artefacts); domestic architecture; subsistence; material culture; monuments; and burial and other treatments of the dead. In doing so, the volume also considers the history of research and sets out agendas and themes for future work in the field.
Category: History

Sticks Stones And Broken Bones

Author : Rick J. Schulting
ISBN : 9780199573066
Genre : History
File Size : 36.56 MB
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Violence has long been recognised as a factor in Neolithic society; what is far less clear is how significant it was. Focusing on evidence of violent injuries in human skeletons, this study draws together together archaeologists from across Europe to present the latest findings in their regional contexts. The case studies examine such evidence for violence in the context of total populations to give an idea of scale. As well as examining regional variation, the contributions offer perspectives on the relationship between violent death and mortuary practice, on variations in violent injuries across age and sex, on chronological developments and on the nature of and incidence of recovery from, injuries.
Category: History

War Peace And Human Nature

Author : Douglas P. Fry
ISBN : 9780190232467
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 56.30 MB
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Have humans always waged war? Is warring an ancient evolutionary adaptation or a relatively recent behavior--and what does that tell us about human nature? In War, Peace, and Human Nature, editor Douglas P. Fry brings together leading experts in such fields as evolutionary biology, archaeology, anthropology, and primatology to answer fundamental questions about peace, conflict, and human nature in an evolutionary context. The chapters in this book demonstrate that humans clearly have the capacity to make war, but since war is absent in some cultures, it cannot be viewed as a human universal. And counter to frequent presumption the actual archaeological record reveals the recent emergence of war. It does not typify the ancestral type of human society, the nomadic forager band, and contrary to widespread assumptions, there is little support for the idea that war is ancient or an evolved adaptation. Views of human nature as inherently warlike stem not from the facts but from cultural views embedded in Western thinking. Drawing upon evolutionary and ecological models; the archaeological record of the origins of war; nomadic forager societies past and present; the value and limitations of primate analogies; and the evolution of agonism, including restraint; the chapters in this interdisciplinary volume refute many popular generalizations and effectively bring scientific objectivity to the culturally and historically controversial subjects of war, peace, and human nature.
Category: Social Science

Warfare In Neolithic Europe

Author : Julian Maxwell Heath
ISBN : 9781473879874
Genre : History
File Size : 33.77 MB
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The Neolithic ('New Stone Age') marks the time when the prehistoric communities of Europe turned their backs on the hunter-gatherer lifestyle that they had followed for many thousands of years, and instead, became farmers. The significance of this switch from a lifestyle that had been based on the hunting and gathering of wild food resources, to one that involved the growing of crops and raising livestock, cannot be underestimated. Although it was a complex process that varied from place to place, there can be little doubt that it was during the Neolithic that the foundations for the incredibly complex modern societies in which we live today were laid. However, we would be wrong to think that the first farming communities of Europe were in tune with nature and each other, as there is a considerable (and growing) body of archaeological data that is indicative of episodes of warfare between these communities. This evidence should not be taken as proof that warfare was endemic across Neolithic Europe, but it does strongly suggest that it was more common than some scholars have proposed. Furthermore, the words of the seventeenth-century English philosopher, Thomas Hobbes, who famously described prehistoric life as 'nasty, brutish, and short', seem rather apt in light of some of the archaeological discoveries from the European Neolithic.
Category: History

Diversity Of Sacrifice

Author : Carrie Ann Murray
ISBN : 9781438459967
Genre : RELIGION
File Size : 81.34 MB
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Explores sacrificial practices across a range of contexts from prehistory to the present.

The term "sacrifice" belies what is a complex and varied transhistorical and transcultural phenomenon. Bringing together scholars from such diverse fields as anthropology, archaeology, epigraphy, literature, and theology, Diversity of Sacrifice explores sacrificial practices across a range of contexts from prehistory to the present. Incorporating theory, material culture, and textual evidence, the volume seeks to consider new and divergent data related to contexts of sacrifice that can help broaden our field of vision while raising new questions. The essays contributed here move beyond reductive and simple explanations to explore complex areas of social interaction. Sacrifice plays a key role in the overlapping sacred and secular spheres for a number of societies in the past and present. How religious beliefs and practices can be integral parts of life on individual and community levels is of fundamental importance to understanding the past and present. In addition to aiding scholarly research, Diversity of Sacrifice enables students to explore this rich theme across Europe and the Mediterranean with clear discussions of theory and data.
Category: RELIGION

Der Gulag

Author : Anne Applebaum
ISBN : 3442153506
Genre :
File Size : 88.66 MB
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