Archaeological Concepts Techniques And Terminology For American Prehistoric Lithic Technology

Author : Wm Jack Hranicky
ISBN : 9781481751742
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 72.16 MB
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Archaeological Concepts, Techniques, and Terminology for American Prehistory Lithic Technology by Wm Jack Hranicky is a 600-page comprehensive publication that encompasses the study of American prehistoric stone tools and implements. It is a look-up volume for studying the material culture of prehistoric people and using its concepts and methods for researching this aspect of archaeology. There are over 3000 entries which are defined and illustrated. It also has an extensive set of references and an overview for the study of stone tools.
Category: Social Science

Origins Of Human Innovation And Creativity

Author : Scott Elias
ISBN : 9780444538222
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 75.87 MB
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Innovation and creativity are two of the key characteristics that distinguish cultural transmission from biological transmission. This book explores a number of questions concerning the nature and timing of the origins of human creativity. What were the driving factors in the development of new technologies? What caused the stasis in stone tool technological innovation in the Early Pleistocene? Were there specific regions and episodes of enhanced technological development, or did it occur at a steady pace where ancestral humans lived? The authors are archaeologists who address these questions, armed with data from ancient artefacts such as shell beads used as jewelry, primitive musical instruments, and sophisticated techniques required to fashion certain kinds of stone into tools. Providing ‘state of art’ discussions that step back from the usual archaeological publications that focus mainly on individual site discoveries, this book presents the full picture on how and why creativity in Middle to Late Pleistocene archeology/anthropology evolved. Gives a full, original and multidisciplinary perspective on how and why creativity evolved in the Middle to Late Pleistocene Enhances our understanding of the big leaps forward in creativity at certain times Assesses the intellectual creativity of Homo erectus, H. neanderthalensis, and H. sapiens via their artefacts
Category: Social Science

Lithic Raw Material Variability And The Reduction Of Short Term Use Implements

Author : Harry Joseph Lerner
ISBN : UOM:39015070949220
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 47.98 MB
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"Chipped stone tools are a truly dynamic medium of material culture. From initial reduction to contemporary excavation, lithic artifacts undergo continuous change. The role of the properties of raw materials in determining rates of use-wear accrual is poorly understood and has rarely been assessed quantitatively. This study offers such quantification regarding four materials exploited for the production of short-term use implements at the Late Archaic FA2-13 site located just outside the city of Farmington, New Mexico. Both experimental and archaeological use-wear evidence was assessed in separate but related ways. Digital image analysis of use-wear invasiveness using ClemexVision PE and GIS analysis of use-wear homogeneity using Idrisi Kilimanjaro yielded distinct but highly complementary results. Direct testing of material properties of non-archaeological samples using a Hysitron Triboindenter served to further clarify these findings in terms of the complex relationship between raw material surface hardness and roughness. The results of the present study show that there are significant differences between rates of wear accrual among the four materials. Analysis of tools from FA2-13 indicates that while scraping activities likely did predominate, it mayalso be feasible to generate more detailed assessments regarding the kinds of scraping activities that were undertaken and the respective intensities with which they were performed. This increased insight can then be extrapolated for application to long-term use technologies and their more complex life histories"--Publisher's web site.
Category: Social Science

Mesoamerican Lithic Technology

Author : Kenn Hirth
ISBN : 0874807654
Genre : History
File Size : 65.52 MB
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Any overview of prehispanic society in the Americas would identify its obsidian core-blade production as a unique and highly inventive technology. Normally termed prismatic blades, these long, parallel-sided flakes are among the sharpest cutting tools ever produced by humans. Their standardized form permitted interchangeable use, and such blades became the cutting tool of choice throughout Mesoamerica between 600-800 B.C. Because considerable production skill is required, increased demand may have stimulated the appearance of craft specialists who played an integral role in Mesoamerican society. Some investigators have argued that control over obsidian also had a significant effect on the development and organization of chiefdom and state-level societies. While researchers have long recognized the potential of obsidian studies, recent work has focused primarily on compositional analysis to reconstruct trade and distribution networks. Study of blade production has received much less attention, and many aspects of this highly evolved craft are still lost. This volume seeks to identify current research questions in Mesoamerican lithic technology and to demonstrate that replication studies coupled with experimental research design are valuable analytical approaches to such questions.
Category: History

Arch Of Society

Author : Thomas Levy
ISBN : 0718513886
Genre : History
File Size : 56.61 MB
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This volume marks a departure from earlier descriptive archaeological summaries of the Holy Land. Taking an anthropological and socio-economic perspective, many of the leading archaeologists who work in Israel and Jordan today present timely and concise summaries of the archaeology of this region. Chronologically organized, each chapter outlines the major cultural transitions which occurred in a given archaeological period. To explain the processes which were responsible for culture change, a review is made of the most recent research concerning settlement patterns, innovations and technology, religion and ideology, and social organization. The material culture of every period of human history in the Holy Land is explored from the earliest prehistoric hominids, through the Biblical and historical periods and up to modern (20th century) times. Each chapter is accompanied by settlement pattern maps and a plate highlighting the major artifacts which archaeologists use to identify the material culture of the period. In addition, windows are presented which focus on major social issues and controversies such as "The Agricultural Revolution", the "Israelite Conquest of Canaan" and "Ancient Metal Working and Social Change". This volume should provide students and the general reader with a useful reference volume concerning the archaeology of societies which lived and live in the Holy Land.
Category: History

The Organization Of North American Prehistoric Chipped Stone Tool Technologies

Author : Philip J. Carr
ISBN : 1879621142
Genre : History
File Size : 21.52 MB
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In this volume Carr assembles a series of papers that examine and analyze archaeological lithics from an "organization of technology" approach. This approach relates artifacts such as chipped stone tools and debitage to a variety of economic and social parameters that allow sound inferences concerning the dynamics of past cultures, thus relating data generated from lithic analysis to larger anthropological questions within an explicit theoretical framework. Rather than a static indicator of types of activities and the frequency with which they were carried out, chipped-stone assemblages are examined as a source of information concerning mobility, social strategies, subsistence, risk, and other aspects of behavior. The papers in this volume explore current methods and theories concerned with the organization of stone tool technology through a variety of studies covering theoretical questions, methods, and models in conjunction with the examination of particular archaeological data sets. The volume concludes with overviews and discussion of the successes of an "organization of technology" approach so far and of possible directions for future research in this area.
Category: History

Lithic Technology Of Neolithic Syria

Author : Yoshihiro Nishiaki
ISBN : STANFORD:36105029468910
Genre : History
File Size : 78.43 MB
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The analysis and interpretation of lithics and lithic technology is an important part of reconstructing cultural development in prehistoric societies. In this study, Yoshihiro Nishiaki examines lithic material from four Neolithic sites in Syria (Douara Cave II, Tell Damishliyya, Tell Nebi Mend and Tell Kashkashok II) as well as more general discussions of methodology, chaîne opératoire , and the behavioural aspects of lithic procurement and production. Concomitant changes in subsistence, settlement, social and economic organisation are also discussed within the context of the Neolithic period in the Near East.
Category: History