AFGHANISTAN A CULTURAL AND POLITICAL HISTORY PRINCETON STUDIES IN MUSLIM POLITICS

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Afghanistan

Author : Thomas Barfield
ISBN : 1400834538
Genre : History
File Size : 90.44 MB
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Afghanistan traces the historic struggles and the changing nature of political authority in this volatile region of the world, from the Mughal Empire in the sixteenth century to the Taliban resurgence today. Thomas Barfield introduces readers to the bewildering diversity of tribal and ethnic groups in Afghanistan, explaining what unites them as Afghans despite the regional, cultural, and political differences that divide them. He shows how governing these peoples was relatively easy when power was concentrated in a small dynastic elite, but how this delicate political order broke down in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries when Afghanistan's rulers mobilized rural militias to expel first the British and later the Soviets. Armed insurgency proved remarkably successful against the foreign occupiers, but it also undermined the Afghan government's authority and rendered the country ever more difficult to govern as time passed. Barfield vividly describes how Afghanistan's armed factions plunged the country into a civil war, giving rise to clerical rule by the Taliban and Afghanistan's isolation from the world. He examines why the American invasion in the wake of September 11 toppled the Taliban so quickly, and how this easy victory lulled the United States into falsely believing that a viable state could be built just as easily. Afghanistan is essential reading for anyone who wants to understand how a land conquered and ruled by foreign dynasties for more than a thousand years became the "graveyard of empires" for the British and Soviets, and what the United States must do to avoid a similar fate.
Category: History

Afghanistan

Author : Thomas Barfield
ISBN : 0691154414
Genre : History
File Size : 53.47 MB
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Traces the political history of Afghanistan from the sixteenth century to the present, looking at what has united the people as well as the regional, cultural, and political differences that divide them.
Category: History

Afghanistan

Author : Thomas Barfield
ISBN : 0691145687
Genre : History
File Size : 25.96 MB
Format : PDF
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Afghanistan traces the historic struggles and the changing nature of political authority in this volatile region of the world, from the Mughal Empire in the sixteenth century to the Taliban resurgence today. Thomas Barfield introduces readers to the bewildering diversity of tribal and ethnic groups in Afghanistan, explaining what unites them as Afghans despite the regional, cultural, and political differences that divide them. He shows how governing these peoples was relatively easy when power was concentrated in a small dynastic elite, but how this delicate political order broke down in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries when Afghanistan's rulers mobilized rural militias to expel first the British and later the Soviets. Armed insurgency proved remarkably successful against the foreign occupiers, but it also undermined the Afghan government's authority and rendered the country ever more difficult to govern as time passed. Barfield vividly describes how Afghanistan's armed factions plunged the country into a civil war, giving rise to clerical rule by the Taliban and Afghanistan's isolation from the world. He examines why the American invasion in the wake of September 11 toppled the Taliban so quickly, and how this easy victory lulled the United States into falsely believing that a viable state could be built just as easily. Afghanistan is essential reading for anyone who wants to understand how a land conquered and ruled by foreign dynasties for more than a thousand years became the "graveyard of empires" for the British and Soviets, and what the United States must do to avoid a similar fate.
Category: History

Games Without Rules

Author : Tamim Ansary
ISBN : 9781610393195
Genre : History
File Size : 62.87 MB
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By the author of Destiny Disrupted: an enlightening, accessible history of modern Afghanistan from the Afghan point of view, showing how Great Power conflicts have interrupted its ongoing, internal struggle to take form as a nation
Category: History

Afghanistan 101

Author : Ehsan M. Entezar
ISBN : 1453501525
Genre : History
File Size : 60.14 MB
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Afghanistan 101 is an introduction to Afghan culture. More specifically, this dimensional analysis discusses Power Distance (PD), Uncertainty Avoidance (UA), Individualism (IND), and Masculinity (MAS) in the Afghan national culture. These dimensions are based on the work of the well-known Dutch anthropologist Geert Hofestede. The manifestations of these cultural dimensions explain the attitudes and actions of Afghans. Each chapter on dimensions also includes a section where the implications of a particular dimension are pointed out to the Westerner working in Afghanistan. Power Distance, the first dimension of culture, describes the relationship between a less powerful person and a more powerful one. As Afghanistan is on the high side of PD, social power is coercive in Afghanistan. One comes to power by force and is ousted by force; wealth and power are inseparable; decision making is autocratic and consultative; expert power does not carry much weight; age and charisma are important; and in Afghanistan, it is the authority of the person rather than the authority of position or rule that counts most. Uncertainty avoidance, the second dimension, involves dealing with fear and ambiguity—fear of nature, fear of other men, and fear of the supernatural. UA is negatively related to PD. A high PD society is on the low side of UA. Cultures use three methods to deal with fear and ambiguity: law, technology, and religion. Being on the low side of UA, Afghans rely heavily on Islam to reduce fear and uncertainty because they cannot rely on technology or the rule of law. The fundamental religious beliefs that help Afghans cope with fear and uncertainty are (1) life in this world temporary, (2) the source of both good and evil is God, and (3) God is just and will punish the oppressors and evil-doers in this world and in the next. Individualism versus collectivism, the third dimension of culture, relates to the relationship of an individual to a collectivity. In nonindividualistic societies such as Afghanistan, one’s loyalty and devotion is first and foremost to the family, ethnic or other collectivity, rather than to the country as a whole. Such loyalties are characteristic of nonnation-states, and are best explained as “Afghan nationalism” that is based on ethnicity, sect, region, and ideology. Afghanistan is not and has never been a nation-state. In a nation-state, people rally around the constitution, the flag, the national anthem, and other such symbols instead of their ethnicity, sect, region, ideology, and so on. Furthermore, a nation-state is based on the rule of law, checks and balances, human rights, freedom of the press, political parties, free and fair elections, accountability, and transparency. The concept of a nation-state is a Western phenomenon, although the roots of a nation-state are deep in some Islamic countries, shallow in others, and nonexistent in others. Turkey, the first Islamic country to have become a nation-state, falls into the first category whereas Afghanistan, into the last. For Afghanistan to move in the direction of becoming a nation-state, some type of federalism may be the only way to prevent further ethnic conflict and another civil war. Masculinity, the fourth dimension of culture, describes the degree to which there is a gender gap within a culture. Afghanistan is on the high side of MAS. As such, sex roles are set in the family and are reinforced in the schools, workplace, and other social organizations. In general, males are taught to be assertive and females, nurturing. In Afghan society, male assertiveness generally involves aggressiveness, bravery, endurance, leadership, power, dominance, and independence. Female nurturance, on the other hand, is characterized by submissiveness, patience, tenderness, and affection. It is Islamic fundamentalism and Afghan cultural tradition, rather than mainstream Islam, that limits the rights
Category: History

Islam And Resistance In Afghanistan

Author : Olivier Roy
ISBN : 0521397006
Genre : History
File Size : 40.75 MB
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This history of the Afghan resistance movement has been expanded and updated to mid 1989 to include its evolution over the last years of Soviet occupation as well as its relations with Islamic fundamentalist movements.
Category: History

Afghanistan

Author : Stephen Tanner
ISBN : 9780786722631
Genre : History
File Size : 20.52 MB
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For over 2,500 years, the forbidding territory of Afghanistan has served as a vital crossroads for armies and has witnessed history-shaping clashes between civilizations: Greek, Arab, Mongol, and Tartar, and, in more recent times, British, Russian, and American. When U.S. troops entered Afghanistan in the weeks following September 11, 2001, they overthrew the Afghan Taliban regime and sent the terrorists it harbored on the run. But America's initial easy victory is in sharp contrast to the difficulties it faces today in confronting the Taliban resurgence. Originally published in 2002, Stephen Tanner's Afghanistan has now been completely updated to include the crucial turn of events since America first entered the country.
Category: History

Afghanistan S Endless War

Author : Larry P. Goodson
ISBN : 9780295801582
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 86.82 MB
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Going beyond the stereotypes of Kalashnikov-wielding Afghan mujahideen and black-turbaned Taliban fundamentalists, Larry Goodson explains in this concise analysis of the Afghan war what has really been happening in Afghanistan in the last twenty years. Beginning with the reasons behind Afghanistan�s inability to forge a strong state -- its myriad cleavages along ethnic, religious, social, and geographical fault lines -- Goodson then examines the devastating course of the war itself. He charts its utter destruction of the country, from the deaths of more than 2 million Afghans and the dispersal of some six million others as refugees to the complete collapse of its economy, which today has been replaced by monoagriculture in opium poppies and heroin production. The Taliban, some of whose leaders Goodson interviewed as recently as 1997, have controlled roughly 80 percent of the country but themselves have shown increasing discord along ethnic and political lines.
Category: Social Science

Muslim Politics

Author : Dale F. Eickelman
ISBN : 0691120536
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 41.87 MB
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In this updated paperback edition, Dale Eickelman and James Piscatori explore how the politics of Islam play out in the lives of Muslims throughout the world. They discuss how recent events such as September 11 and the 2003 war in Iraq have contributed to reshaping the political and religious landscape of Muslim-majority countries and Muslim communities elsewhere. As they examine the role of women in public life and Islamic perspectives on modernization and free speech, the authors probe the diversity of the contemporary Islamic experience, suggesting general trends and challenging popular Western notions of Islam as a monolithic movement. In so doing, they clarify concepts such as tradition, authority, ethnicity, pro-test, and symbolic space, notions that are crucial to an in-depth understanding of ongoing political events. This book poses questions about ideological politics in a variety of transnational and regional settings throughout the Muslim world. Europe and North America, for example, have become active Muslim centers, profoundly influencing trends in the Middle East, Africa, Central Asia, and South and Southeast Asia. The authors examine the long-term cultural and political implications of this transnational shift as an emerging generation of Muslims, often the products of secular schooling, begin to reshape politics and society--sometimes in defiance of state authorities. Scholars, mothers, government leaders, and musicians are a few of the protagonists who, invoking shared Islamic symbols, try to reconfigure the boundaries of civic debate and public life. These symbolic politics explain why political actions are recognizably Muslim, and why "Islam" makes a difference in determining the politics of a broad swath of the world.
Category: Political Science

The War For Afghanistan A Very Brief History

Author : Thomas Barfield
ISBN : 9781400843145
Genre : History
File Size : 34.28 MB
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When it invaded Afghanistan in 2001, the United States sought to do something previous foreign powers had never attempted: to create an Afghani state where none existed. More than a decade on, the new regime in Kabul remains plagued by illegitimacy and ineffectiveness. What happened? As Thomas Barfield shows, the history of previous efforts to build governments in Afghanistan does much to explain the difficulties besetting this newest experiment. Princeton Shorts are brief selections taken from influential Princeton University Press books and produced exclusively in ebook format. Providing unmatched insight into important contemporary issues or timeless passages from classic works of the past, Princeton Shorts enable you to be an instant expert in a world where information is everywhere but quality is at a premium.
Category: History